CCJ2015-Connell Concept Of Hegemonic Masculinity Essay

Question:

You are required to address one of the following topics:
1.The women’s liberation hypothesis suggests that due to female societal emancipation, women’s offending will increase. Discuss whether women’s violent offending is indeed increasing to levels similar to that of men’s.
What you will need to do to address this essay topic:

a.Explain the women’s liberation hypothesis;
b.Discuss research literature that has investigated whether or not women’s violence is increasing to levels similar to that of men (you might also use primary data e.g. government crime statistics);
c.Discuss whether this evidence fits with the women’s liberation hypothesis.
d.Explore other plausible explanations for your findings.
2.Using R.W. Connell’s (1995) concept of hegemonic masculinity, explain why men may commit one of the following offences:
a.sexual assault of women
b.violent hate crimes against homosexual men
c.opposite sex intimate partner violence
d.same sex intimate partner violence
e.sexual abuse of children
f.filicide
What you will need to do to address this essay topic:

a.Define the type of crime you have chosen to focus on (from the options above).
b.Discuss Connell’s concept of hegemonic masculinity.
c.Discuss research literature that has investigated the connection between hegemonic masculinity and the crime you have chosen.
d.Using the literature, explain how the concept of hegemonic masculinity might help us understand this crime.
e.Explore other plausible explanations for why this crime is committed.

Answer:

The concept of crime generally refers to the several unlawful practices that are punishable by the laws of the land. The authorities responsible for the regulation of the criminal rates within the territories are generally involved with the concerned departments of the government that has been active within the area. The rates of the various criminal activities are observed to have been on the high in the recent times all over the world (Walters, 2014). The major increase in the criminal activities might be noticed in the cases where the male members of the society have been attempting the criminal activities on their female counterparts (Roberts, 2018). The criminal activities are also observed in the matters that involve the people who have been observed to be weaker than the other members of the society belonging to the same sex.

The following essay opens with the discussion of one of the major crimes that is committed mostly by the male members who have been residing within the society. The essay proceeds to discuss the concept of the hegemonic masculinity as discussed by the eminent Australian psychologist, Raewyn Connell. The essay further proceeds to discuss the matters that pertain to the relationship shared between the concerned crime and the concept as proposed by the psychologist. The essay uses the implementation of the concept of the hegemonic masculinity to shed some light on the understanding of the crime. The essay nears its end with the other explanations that seem to be plausible for the explanations of the concerned crime, the sexual offence towards the female members of the society.

Description of crime

The crime that is discussed within the span of this essay deals with the various sexual assaults and the atrocities that are meted out to the female members of the society. The sexual assault against the women might include the several incidents like the matters pertaining to rape, female infanticide, the various types of the domestic violence, the reproductive coercion (Nsvrc.org., 2018). The other major forms of the sexual assault might refer to the matters that pertain to the several traditional and customary practices that might prove to be harmful for the concerned members who have been residing within the concerned society. These practices might include the various heinous practices like the genital mutilation, the various conditions of the forced marriages, those that involve the various marriages that involve the abduction of the bride (Gidycz et al., 2015). The honor killings might also include the honor killings as well as the forced sterilization of the women and the forced abortion of the pregnant women. The incidents of the trafficking of the various women and the children as well as forcing the trafficked women into the prostitution.

The various reports suggest that almost 35% percent of the women all over the world tend to experience the physical violence from the intervention of the male members of the society. A major section of the female members of the society have reported to have endured the intimate partner violence (Nsvrc.org., 2018). This section of the female members of the global residents of the world might add up to almost 70% of the total population of the world. The female members of the global citizenship have been reported to comprise of 50% of the global homicide that were conducted all over the world (Unwomen.org., 2018).

The overall number of the world females who have been known to be forced into the marriage before they might have attained the marriageable age is recorded to have added up to almost 750 million women (Unwomen.org., 2018). The statistical reports suggest that almost 120 million underage girls and women have been forced to have sexual intercourse at some or the other given point of time within their lives (Unwomen.org., 2018). The heinous activity genital mutilation is known to have been faced by almost 200 million women and the underage girls in over 30 countries of the world (Unwomen.org., 2018). The genital mutilation is generally conducted on the minor girls who might be only 5 years in age when they are cut (Unwomen.org., 2018). The total number of the adult women who have been a victim of trafficking constitute almost 51% of the total number of the members who have been trafficked (Unwomen.org., 2018). The combined report of the human trafficking reveals that the women and the girls together amount to almost 71% of the total number of people who have been trafficked from all over the world (Unwomen.org., 2018). The reports suggest that 3 out of 4 children who have ended up being trafficked are girls (Unwomen.org., 2018).

Connell’s concept of hegemonic masculinity

The concept of the hegemonic masculinity was discussed by the eminent Australian psychologist, Raewyn Connell. The hegemonic masculinity concept is a part of the broader concept of the gender order theory that was also proposed by the same psychologist (Connell, 2017). The gender order theory attempts a recognition of the differing concepts of masculinity that might be varying with the variance in matters that pertain to the cultural aspects of the concerned society, the time constraints within the given society as well as the matters that are exclusive to the concerned individual. The concept of the hegemonic masculinity attempts to deal with the matters that pertain to the legitimization of the domination of the male members of the society. The concept agrees and declared the subordination of the women to be justified. The concept also affirms the other matters that lead to the other marginalization (Jewkes et al., 2015). This might relate to the concept of the superiority of the men over the other gender divisions within the human population of the world.

The concept of the hegemonic masculinity might derive its hegemonic constraints from the theory that pertain s to the cultural hegemony. This concept as discussed by Antonio Gramsci, an eminent Marxist theorist tends to put forth an analysis of the various matters that pertain to the power relations that might exist within the concerned social classes within the society (Welsh, 2017). The initial openings of the hegemonic masculinity attempted the idealization of the manhood that is displayed by the male members of the society. The concept attempts a discussion on the dominant conditions that have been maintained by a certain section that has been present within the hierarchy that is maintained within the given society.

Connection between theory and crime

The increasing activities of the crimes against the women members of the society might be explained through the implementation of the concept of the hegemonic masculinity. The concept states that the domination of the male members of the society is legitimate. The concept agrees and declared the subordination of the women to be justified. The concept also affirms the other matters that lead to the other marginalization (Johansson & Ottemo, 2015). This might relate to the concept of the superiority of the men over the other gender divisions within the human population of the world. The concept of the hegemonic masculinity might derive its hegemonic constraints from the theory that pertain s to the cultural hegemony.

The initial openings of the hegemonic masculinity attempted the idealization of the manhood that is displayed by the male members of the society. This has led to the conditions that might relate to the reasoning of the factors that might be responsible for the increase in the sexual crimes that are faced by the female members of the society especially the adult women. assault against the women might include the several incidents like the matters pertaining to the rape, female infanticide, the various types of the domestic violence, the reproductive coercion (Christensen & Jensen, 2014). The other major forms of the sexual assault might refer to the matters that pertain to the several traditional and customary practices that might prove to be harmful for the concerned members who have been residing within the concerned society. The increase in the rate of the crimes might be analyzed keeping in mind the various factors that are related to the hegemonic masculinity within the concerned society.

Role of the theory on understanding of crime

The theory in discussion is related to the matters that pertain to the matters that are related to the dominant position that is held by the male members of the society. The concept of the hegemonic masculinity as proposed by the eminent Australian psychologist, Raewyn Connell, tends to discuss the various factors that are related to the dominance of the male members of the society over the female members of the society (Rosellini et al., 2017). The theory might help in the matters that pertain to the dominance of the female members and the matters that pertain to the implementation of the physical strength of the concerned members of the society (Messerschmidt, 2015). The initial openings of the hegemonic masculinity attempted the idealization of the manhood that is displayed by the male members of the society. The major increase in the criminal activities might be noticed in the cases where the male members of the society have been attempting the criminal activities on their female counterparts.

The concept attempts a discussion on the dominant conditions that have been maintained by a certain section that has been present within the hierarchy that is maintained within the given society. The theory might also help in the matters that pertain to the implementation of the brute physical forces and the other forms of dominance over the weaker section of the society (Bobbio, 2014). The matters that are related to the various forms of the sexual violence against the women might result from the mentality that considers the male members of the society to be superior to the women. This might lead to factors that pertain to the implementation of the thoughts that the women should be the subordinate members of the society. The male members who have been the staunch believers of this theory tend to implement these measures in the matters that are related to the forced subordination of the female members.

Other plausible explanation of crime

There might exist various ways to look at a criminal incident that involves the matters that pertain to the sexual assaults that are inflicted on the various female members of the society. The other plausible reasons that are used to explain the occurrence of the crime sector in discussion, the sexual assault of the women members of the society include the ignorance of the members of the society. This is generally observed in the cases wherein the genital mutilation of the concerned females has posed to be an issue. The genetic mutilation of the little girls has been considered to be an issue for the overall development of the societal norms within the given society (Goldberg et al., 2016). The rate of the genetic mutilation might be controlled by education the various members of the society on the ill-effects of the practice and the various major outcomes that might follow the concerned practice.


The other reason that might be present behind the matters that pertain to the sexual violence against the women include the revengeful attitude that is depicted by the male members of the society (Hunter, Riggs & Augoustinos, 2017). The male members who do not treat the women as equals or even as the ones who might be able to compete with them on the same platform are mostly observed to be afflicting sexual assaults on the various female members of the concerned society as well as the global society at large.

In lieu of the above discussion it might be pointed out that the concept of the hegemonic masculinity might be considered to be one of the reasons that might be related to the increment in the matters pertaining to the sexual atrocities that are inflicted on the female members of the society. The concept of the hegemonic masculinity as proposed by the eminent Australian psychologist, Raewyn Connell, tends to discuss the various factors that are related to the dominance of the male members of the society over the female members of the society. The theory might help in the matters that pertain to the dominance of the female members and the matters that pertain to the implementation of the physical strength of the concerned members of the society. This might include all the various types of the sexual assaults that are inflicted on the concerned members of the society like rapes, female infanticide, the various types of the domestic violence, the reproductive coercion. Thus, it might safely be concluded that the concept of the hegemonic masculinity might be one of the major reasons behind the commitment of these crimes

References

Bobbio, N. (2014). Gramsci and the conception of civil society. In Gramsci and Marxist Theory (RLE: Gramsci) (pp. 21-47). Routledge.

Christensen, A. D., & Jensen, S. Q. (2014). Combining hegemonic masculinity and intersectionality. NORMA: International Journal for Masculinity Studies, 9(1), 60-75.

Connell, R. W. (2017). On hegemonic masculinity and violence: Response to Jefferson and Hall. In Crime, Criminal Justice and Masculinities (pp. 57-68). Routledge.

Gidycz, C. A., Orchowski, L. M., Probst, D. R., Edwards, K. M., Murphy, M., & Tansill, E. (2015). Concurrent administration of sexual assault prevention and risk reduction programming: Outcomes for women. Violence against women, 21(6), 780-800.

Goldberg, H., Stupp, P., Okoroh, E., Besera, G., Goodman, D., & Danel, I. (2016). Female genital mutilation/cutting in the United States: updated estimates of women and girls at risk, 2012. Public Health Reports, 131(2), 340-347.

Hunter, S. C., Riggs, D. W., & Augoustinos, M. (2017). Hegemonic masculinity versus a caring masculinity: Implications for understanding primary caregiving fathers. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 11(3), e12307.

Jewkes, R., Morrell, R., Hearn, J., Lundqvist, E., Blackbeard, D., Lindegger, G., Quayle, M., Sikweyiya, Y. & Gottz?n, L., (2015). Hegemonic masculinity: combining theory and practice in gender interventions. Culture, health & sexuality, 17(sup2), 112-127.

Johansson, T., & Ottemo, A. (2015). Ruptures in hegemonic masculinity: The dialectic between ideology and utopia. Journal of Gender Studies, 24(2), 192-206.

Messerschmidt, J. W. (2015). Hegemonic masculinities and camouflaged politics: Unmasking the Bush dynasty and its war against Iraq. Routledge.

Nsvrc.org. (2018). Retrieved 25 August 2018 from

Nsvrc.org. (2018). Sexual Assault Statistics | National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC). Retrieved 25 August 2018 from

Roberts, J. (2018). Public opinion, crime, and criminal justice. Routledge.

Rosellini, A.J., Street, A.E., Ursano, R.J., Chiu, W.T., Heeringa, S.G., Monahan, J., Naifeh, J.A., Petukhova, M.V., Reis, B.Y., Sampson, N.A. & Bliese, P.D., (2017). Sexual assault victimization and mental health treatment, suicide attempts, and career outcomes among women in the US Army. American journal of public health, 107(5), 732-739.

Unwomen.org. (2018). Facts and figures: Ending violence against women. Retrieved 25 August 2018 from

Walters, G. D. (2014). Drugs, Crime, and Their Relationships. Burlington, MA: Jones & Barlett Learning.

Welsh, B. H. (2017). Framing Culture and Diversity Today: Cultural Hegemony. Journal of Underrepresented and Minority Progress, 1(1), 3-7.

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