The study includes the description of the case study of buying and selling of second hand books to the university students. The study illustrates the processes through the business process modeling notation. The study also holds the narrative of the business case and the written description of the developed BPMN model. In order to crate the process visualization, the BPMN level 2 structure notation has been selected. The process describes that total five entities are involved in the process.
Background of the Business:
The business is all about buying and selling of old books. The customer of the business are the university students. As the organization are running their business within university premise, they need to have a permit. This permit is gained through license fee. The organization provide ten percent of the book price to university as a concession. In order to acquire the books from the owner, the organization has to promote their business. The business promotion is done through various ways like advertising in local magazines, posters and many more. The university also assists the organization in the promotion by informing various people working in or with the university. Communication is a big factor in this business as the owner and buyer of the books must be contacted various times mainly regarding books and payments.
Delivering the books to the buyers is a crucial part of the business process. The organization has selected courier services like DHL and FedEx for this service. These two courier services are well known in their fields for good service. The reason behind choosing good service providers is that, the organization will be able to provide service as per mentioned. The hidden factor in this delivery service is that, if the delivery is not done within mentioned time, the customers will blame the organization, not the courier service. The courier services will be informed of the delivery address, buyer details with contact number and delivery date and time. The organization will estimate the time for delivery based on the location of the delivery address and the locality the customer address belongs to. The organization will charge the customers based on the delivery charge in addition to cost of the book. The exception in this process is that customer will not be charged if he/she buys a certain amount of books.
The courier service provider sends a bill to the organization for the service they have provided. Once the organization gets the information that book has been delivered successfully, they will pay the university and the owner of the book. For each transaction, the organization will generate a receipt and an invoice. The university will send a receipt of payment they have received. The owner will only sign a form that states that he/she has got the predefined percentage for the book has been sold. After all the processes are done properly, the organization ends the process of buying and selling a book.
Discussion on BPMN:
The BPMN or business process modeling notation is the process of representing the current or proposed processes of an organization through visual models. The feature of the model is that it supports the graphical notation representations of the processes within an organization. This model is based on the UML’s (Unified Modeling Language’s) activity diagram (Stavrou et al. 2014). The purpose of the business process models is to standardize the notations which are easily understandable by the stakeholders of the organization. A standard Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) provides businesses with the capability of understanding their internal business procedures in a graphical notation and will give organizations the ability to communicate these procedures in a standard manner. Furthermore, the graphical notation will facilitate the understanding of the performance collaborations and business transactions between the organizations. This will ensure that businesses will understand themselves and participants in their business and will enable organizations to adjust to new internal and B2B business circumstances quickly.
The BPMN has events that shows the start, end and intermediate events. The business process must be started with a start event and ended with an end event. The message start events can be used to show the flow of messages between separated pools. The intermediate events are used for showing events that occurs during process execution. The activates are the main part of a BPMN model. These activities show the actual tasks that an entity does in the business process. Each of the activity must be within a pool so that the responsible person or entity for executing the activity can be recognized (Andrade et al. 2016). The gateways assist in supporting the dynamic nature of the business. Suppose an organization provide discount based on the customer loyalty. Now to show that, a component is necessary that can illustrate discount percentage for categories of customers. To show this process inclusive or exclusive gateways can be used. The sequence flow shows flow of activities within the lanes. The message flow is generally used when flow of activities are shown between two separate pools.
Business Process Model:
Figure 1: Business Process Model of Book Buying and Selling
(Source: Created by Author)
Figure 2: Child Level Process
(Source: Created by Author)
Description of the Model:
The process starts with a start event, as per the conventional BPMN modeling rules. The owner of the book sends the details of the book along with personal details to the organization. The organization collects the book details. After that, they check the condition of the book and details of it. If the book is rare, in high demand or in good condition, the prices are set high, otherwise low prices are set. The owner also mentions the quantity of same books available to him. The signal intermediate event illustrates that the price set process is done and the organization employee can store the book details in the database. At the time, a buyer sends the details of the book that he/she intends to buy, the organization employee gather the information and searches the availability of mentioned book in the database. The buyer also sends their personal details while sending book details. If the book is available in the database, the organization send the price of the book with delivery charge and bank details to the buyer. The buyer transfers the amount to be paid and inform organization. If the payment is successful, organization contacts with courier service provider. If the payment is not received, then the organization informs the buyer regarding that.
The courier service provider collects the book and the details of the customer. The courier service provider delivers the book within mentioned date and time. The buyer signs in a form that states that, courier is receive. The courier organization informs the organization that book is delivered successfully. Now the organizations traders the ten percent to university and approximately thirty-eight percent to owner. The process ends with an end event as mention as per BMPM conventional process modeling.
Assumptions: At the time of developing the business process model, various things have been assumed to facilitate the model developing activity. The first thing that has been assumed that customers of the organization does not login to any system. This means, the organization does not have any app or website which collects the user data. It is assumed that customers and organization communicate through mail or physically. The owners of the book send the books to the organization by themselves.
Advantages of the Proposed BPMN: The BPMN has supported the management of business processes of buying and selling books. The BPMN model has been crated so accurately that everyone with knowledge of BPMN can understand the whole process easily. The organization can later use this model to identify gaps in business processes and start changing the processes.
From the above study, it can be concluded that the business process modeling notation or BMPN presented in the study has been successfully visualized the process of buying and selling old books. The process modelling is designed as per the BPMN modeling conventions. The process models have presented tree black box pool. The model is accurate and covers all the aspects of the proposed process scenario. In future, this model can be modified further and mire complex and detailed process model can be designed. The description of the scenario of the business case has allowed to examine the process model accuracy. The model lacks in capturing all the aspects of the business.
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