2. Conceptualise and methodology?
3. Evaluation of the individual, social, environmental and cultural influences on consumer behaviour?
The strategies adopted by the companies to market the products and services offered to the clients differ. Marketing strategies has to be simple and effective as this will help the management to reach out to maximum number of clients from different parts of the market. The strategies for celebrity endorsement depend upon the cultural values and services that have been intended to be sold to the clients. In this process, the management has to adopt effective strategies through which the products can be sold and featured in the best possible manner. In this process, the challenges associated with the marketing and the steps required to be followed for promoting the services has to be analysed. This will help in increasing the sales and improving the sales for the products and services for the clients. The strategies adopted by the company depend upon the future gaols and the steps intended to be followed for achieving the desired task (Oyserman et al., 2002).
1. Key concepts for celebrity branding
Marketing strategies plays a key role in the promotional activities for the products and services sold by different companies. Celebrity endorsers are individuals who enjoy public recognition and use the same for promoting the goods and products for the company. This concept is not new, though the strategies and marketing process for the products has changed over the years. Companies choose this form of advertisement to effectively reach out to the mass clients from different parts of the market. Such endorsements offer numerous benefits to the company, including building brand image. Grabbing the attention of the clients are quite a challenging task, as there are many companies that sells similar kind of products and services to the customers (Rateni, 2005).
Marketing managers look around for reliable marketing strategies through which the products and services could be endorsed or marketed. For this, it is essential to make potential buyers listen to the product details and features. Useful communication becomes an integral part for product promotional activities.
Is endorsement essential?
Celebrity endorsement plays an important role for the product promotion and attracting the attention of the clients. Buyers have become very conscious about the product or services that are being purchased by them from different companies. In order to select the right type of product, buyers prefer to gather accurate and precise information through which the selection process can be simplified. This is also done to be parts of the social standing, where the buyers choose to wear the right type of clothes, choose the best food, and others (Holden, 2004).
Messages conveyed through the promotional activities form important key factor through which the sales and visibility for the product can be improved. Celebrity endorsement for the products has values which can motivate the members to buy the products and services. As per the marketing department, it is believed that the celebrity endorsement would certainly have positive impact on the purchases of the goods and services that is being sold by the company. Celebrity endorsement is quite likely to be observed for the products that has high price production market for the cost. This certainly helps in attracting the larger customer base, which is necessary for sustaining the tough competition that exists in the industry (Lee & Thorson, 2008)
Such method for product endorsement plats a key role in promoting the goods and services to the clients located in the national market. This method is more suitable for the utility products that have higher values like apparels, shoes, soft drinks, and others. Such products have price cost margin is high.
The other key factor is the method adopted for developing coordination with the clients, which is necessary for improving the performance for the company. Through this process, it is possible to approach maximum number of clients r customer groups and convince about the product services and features. At the time of promoting the services, it is necessary to analyse the references of the customer groups like the age, income, gender, education, and others. Such an analysis has to be carried out for the clients located in different markets from the national market. A perfect example to marketing is related to the credit card sales. At the time of promoting the sales of the product, the promotional message designed by the company is meant for every customer regardless of the age and gender of the clients (Carrillat et al., 2013).
The message selection is done through an effective process and it coordinates the groups of customers. In other words, the messages are conveyed to different groups of clients in the same or one group and it is done to convince the buyers to encourage the members to invest in the purchase of the goods and products. Common messages are deigned and presented by the company in order to reach out to maximum number of clients from different parts of the same market. Such a promotional activity is done at the lower price, and it is mean to increase the sales. Celebrity endorsement of the products and services are considered to be low cost method, and it is recognised across the world. Through this method, it is possible to develop and implement low cost cross group coordination method (Bond, 2002).
Celebrity endorsement can positively impact the behaviour and preferences of the potential customers. it is thus believed celebrity endorsement can be generate for the company the actual purchase behaviour, which is important for sustaining the tough competition that prevails in the market. Through such a process, the management would be able to earn better returns on the funds that have been investment by the company. The endorsement method is more reliable and preference oriented, when compared to the non-celebrity method for product endorsement. In this method the company can generate and yield the desirable outcomes that include attitudes of the buyers towards the promotional activities and the brand product endorsed by the company. Through this method, it is possible for the company to generate more income from the sales of the products and services that is being endorsed by celebrity. Management of the company use such methods through the public persona match, where the products are precisely advertised as per the requirements of the clients or the potential buyers (Biswas, et al., 2009).
2. Conceptualise and methodology
As per the research conducted with the effectiveness related to the celebrity endorsement, it has been analysed that the celebrities improve visibility or add value to the products and services that is being sold by the company. Marketing is an important factor that can affect the business performance. The selection of the process has to be done after analysing the future objectives for the company. This is related to the sales and promotional activities that have been selected for promotional activities for the company (Choi & Rifon, 2007)
Some of the models or the methods used for the product endorsements are –
- Source credibility
- Source attractiveness model (Batra, R. and Homer, 2004).
- Product match-up hypothesis
In case of the social influence theory for the product promotion, the marketing company basically concentrate on the message that is intended to be shared with the clients. Source attractiveness model for promoting the goods and services choose messages that are related to the similarity and familiarity of the celebrity who endorse the product sold by the company. The effectiveness of the message is basically concentrated on, as this is expected to attract the attention of the potential clients. The message conveyed has to congruent with the advertising effectiveness that has been selected by the company. The method adopted for promoting the products and services depends upon the relationship between the celebrity and the brand that is being used for promoting the sales for the products and services. As per researchers, it is believed that celebrity endorsement has high product value, when compared to the other product promotional activities (Aaker & Lee, 2001).
This also depends upon the effective strategy adopted for marketing the products and services manufactured by the company. the models mentioned above, however doesn’t measure the multi-dimensionality for the source effects the approaches that needs to be selected for promoting the goods and services to the clients. The approaches have to be analysed in terms of communication and meaning that is being conveyed to the clients. In the product match-up hypotheses method, the facts related to the role of congruence between the product and brand for celebrity endorsement is planned and implemented in the right manner. The convert view has to be considered at the time of promoting the products and services. This includes rendering the right type of information to the users through which the process for celebrity endorsement can be executed by the management. The company needs to adopt honest and reliable method for promoting the products to the clients. In this process, the meaning of the advertisement and the contents presented through the promotion activities has to be analysed (Beamer & Valentine, 2000).
The brand label is related to the celebrity who is decided to fit into this category. Consumer perception about the product and the celebrity has to be also considered at the time of promoting the products and services. Such a methodology would certainly help the company to approach maximum number of clients and sell the products in the best possible manner. The celebrity chosen to endorse the product and services needs to have persona which is related to the role played by the celebrity in the society. The cultural aspects in this process have to be analysed, as this will help in approaching the clients and convincing them for the purchase of the goods and services sold by the company. Celebrity endorsement for the product endorses or revolves around the product that has been designed to be sold to the potential customers. Consumer chooses to invest in the products that are being endorsed by the celebrities with an intention of transferring the meaning of the products to the clients. The differentiating feature in this method is with the personality of the endorser or the celebrity and the method adopted by the company to promote the products and services sold by the organization (Rateni, 2005).
It has been stated that the celebrity endorsement was around 20% of the total television commercials that existed in the year 1995. During that time, the famous celebrities were recruited to promote the sales of the products and services. At that time, 60% of the total endorsement method followed by the company was related to shoes and soft drink companies. Through the psychological research basis, an attempt was made to find the impact of celebrities into the sales of the certain products and marketing process. This research was also conducted to find the impact of marketing techniques that was adopted by the company to promote the sales of the products and services (Money et al., 2006).
Some of the features that make the products endorsed by the celebrities worth noticeable are–
1. Credibility of the creditors on the product makes the product more desirable and encourages the buyers to invest in its purchases.
2. The image of the celebrity is transferred to the product value, which makes the product saleable by the company.
3. Through impressive content and marketing process, the company could create positive image in the minds of the end users, which is necessary for the increase in the sales (Singh, 2004).
The marketing models followed by the company from different parts of the market and industry plays a key role in the promotional activities. Through the marketing strategy, an attempt is made to understand the changing behaviour of the potential buyers which is necessary to introduce an effective method for the increase of the sales for the products and services. In this process, the cultural values and relevance of the same has to be also included. This makes the company to increase the value of the products and services that is being sold to the clients (Rice et al., 2012).
Cultural values include introducing better methods for marketing the products and services to the clients. Through this method the changing human behaviour is analysed as this will help in improving the strategies that is being followed by the company to attract the attention of the clients from different markets. The cultural dimensions have to be analysed and better methods needs to be introduced for handling the challenges. This will help in handling the marketing issues, which impacts the performance of the company. The process followed for marketing of the products and services has to be analysed as this will help in approaching maximum number of clients (Triandis, 2004).
3. Evaluation of the individual, social, environmental and cultural influences on consumer behaviour
Buyer behaviour is influenced by different factors, which impacts the sales strategies prepared by the management. In this process, the management of the company has to analyse different factors that can impact the sales for the products and services for the clients. Challenges internal or external factors that impacts the strategies prepared by the company. There are different types of factors that can impact the willingness of the buyers to invest in the purchase of the products and services. Cultural values for the product endorsement depend upon the strategies followed by the management to improve upon the sales and the visibility of the products and services for the clients (Grace and O'Cass, 2002)
Through this process, the management of the company work towards exploring the unexplored area which can directly impact the business performance and the sales for the products and services. The dimension related to the cultural values has to be analysed as this will help in promoting the services in the right manner. Through the cultural values the forces that can directly influence the behaviour of the people residing in the society are analysed. This has been done with an intention of promoting the services to the clients from different markets (Choi, S., & Rifon, 2012).
In this process an attempt is made to improve the collective identify process, which defines the cultural values, ideas, and other factors that are associated with the promotional activities. In the process for shaping human behaviour the needs and preferences of the clients has to be analysed in an effective manner. The cultural factors is quite complex and in this process the knowledge, art, laws, and customs are analysed. In the collective programming method, the behaviour of the groups of buyers has to be analysed. This will help in promoting the services that will be useful for promoting the services that is being sold by the company (Fiske, 2002).
In this process, the individual requirements for the products and services have to be analysed. This will help in improving the process for marketing that has been selected by the company. People or the potential buyers usually choose to buy the products that are being endorsed by their favourite celebrity. This happens due to psychological factors. The management of the company needs to adopt an effective strategy through which the social behaviour and the expectations of the clients can be analysed. Through this method, it is possible for the company to develop and introduce better methods that would increase the sales for the products (Gurel-Atay, 2010).
Human behaviour for the purchase of the goods and services depends upon different factors like the expectations, price, quality and others. Such factors are related r the willingness of the buyers to invest in the purchase of the goods and services of the products and services that is being sold by the company. The marketing department needs to analyse such an expectation and draft effective policies through which the needs of the clients can be affectively handled. In this process, the management needs to compare the individualism factors against the collectivism which impacts the buying capacity of the purchasers. In this case, it is essential to take care of the emotional needs of the potential buyers as this will help in the investment of the product purchases (de Mooij & Hofstede, 2010)
The decision to hire celebrity for promoting the goods and services to the clients is an expensive affair. Apart from this the details related to the brand awareness and other factors have to be analysed. Through this method, it is possible for the management of the company to develop and introduce effective methods for approaching the clients. In this method, it is necessary to choose the better method through which the sales for the products and services can be planned and implemented by the management. Through effective planning and the other factors the message can be effectively conveyed to the clients. In this process the social relevance and other factors influencing the buying ability of the buyers has to be analysed. This will help in improving the sales for the company (Lee & Thorson, 2008)
This includes analysing the safeness of the products and services that is being sold by the company. Through this process, the management attempts to include analysing the requirements of the clients. In this method, the benefits and safety measures followed for the manufacturing of the products are discussed with the clients. This has been done with an intention of providing more information about the products and services to the potential buyers. This is one of the important factors through which the sales for the products and services are improved. Through effective strategies and planning method the sales process can be improved (Daneshvary et al., 2000).
Marketing strategies plays an important role in the business developmental activities. Through this process, it is possible for the management of the company to introduce effective strategies through which the sales can be improved. Celebrity endorsement helps the management of the company to reach out to maximum number of clients and highlight the feature of the services that is being rendered to the buyers. With the help of such a method, it is possible for the company to improve the sales activity, which is considered to be essential for the product promotion. Customers choose to buy unique products that would offer better values to the money that has been invested by the company. Through this process, it is possible for the management to introduce effective method that will improve the visibility of the products for the clients. The challenges involved in the process of promotional activities have to be analysed as this will help in approaching the clients and increasing the sales for the products.
Aaker, J. & Lee, A. (2001) "I" seek pleasures and "We" avoid pains: The role of selfregulatory goals in information processing and persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 28(1), 33-49.
Batra, R. and Homer, P. (2004) The situational impact of brand image belief. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14 (3): 318–330. Murphy, J. (1990) Assessing the value of brand. Long Range Planning 23 (3): 23–29
Beamer, L. & Valentine, D. (2000) Finding a way to teach cultural dimensions. Business Communication Quarterly, 63(3), 111-118.
Biswas, S., Hussain, M., & O'Donnell, K. (2009). Celebrity endorsements in advertisements and consumer perceptions: A cross-cultural study. Journal Of Global Marketing, 22(2), 121-137.
Bond, M. (2002). Reclaiming the individual from Hofstede's ecological analysis — a 20 year odyssey: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002). Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 73-77.
Carrillat, F. A., d'Astous, A., & Lazure, J. (2013). For better, for worse?: What to do when celebrity endorsements go bad. Journal Of Advertising Research, 53(1), 15-30.
Choi, S., Lee, W. & Kim, H. (2005) Lessons from the rich and famous. Journal of Advertising, 34(2), 85-98.
Choi, S. & Rifon, N. (2007) Who is the celebrity in advertising? Understanding dimensions of celebrity images. Journal of Popular Culture, 40(2), 304-324.
Choi, S., & Rifon, N. J. (2012). It is a match: The impact of congruence between celebrity image and consumer ideal self on endorsement effectiveness. Psychology & Marketing, 29(9), 639-650
Daneshvary, Rennal and R.Keith Schwer (2000) “The Association endorsement and Consumers Intention to purchase,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17(3), 203- 213.
de Mooij, M., & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 85-110.
Elberse, A., & Verleun, J. (2012). The economic value of celebrity endorsements. Journal Of Advertising Research, 52(2), 149-165
Fleck, N., Korchia, M., & Le Roy, I. (2012). Celebrities in advertising: Looking for congruence or likability?. Psychology & Marketing, 29(9), 651-662.
Fleck, N., & Quester, P. (2007). Birds of a feather flock together...definition, role and measure of congruence: An application to sponsorship. Psychology & Marketing, 24(11), 975-1000.
Fiske, A. (2002) Using individualism and collectivism to compare cultures - A critique of the validity and measurement of the constructs: Comment on Oyserman et al. (2002). Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 78-88.
Grace, D. and O'Cass, A. (2002) Brand associations: Looking through the eye of the beholder. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 5 (2): 96–111.
Gurel-Atay, E., & Kahle, L. (2010). Celebrity endorsements and advertising effectiveness: The importance of value congruence. Advances In Consumer Research, 37, pp. 807-809.
Holden, N. (2004) Why marketers need a new concept of culture for the global knowledge economy. International Marketing Review, 21(6), 563-572.
Lee, J., & Thorson, E. (2008). The impact of celebrity-product incongruence on the effectiveness of product endorsement. Journal Of Advertising Research, 48(3), 433-449.
Money, R., Shimp, T. & Sakano, T. (2006) Celebrity endorsements in Japan and the United States: Is negative information all that harmful?. Journal of Advertising Research, 46(1), 113-123.
Oyserman, D., Coon, H. & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128(1), 3-72
Rateni, P, (2005), “Riding the wave,” Brwach. Hindustan Times Jan30, 2005. Pg.4-10
Rice, D., Kelting, K., & Lutz, R. J. (2012). Multiple endorsers and multiple endorsements: The influence of message repetition, source congruence and involvement on brand attitudes. Journal Of Consumer Psychology, 22(2), 249-259.
Singh, N. (2004) From cultural models to cultural categories: A framework for cultural analysis. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5(1/2), 95-101.
Triandis, H. (2004) The many dimensions of culture. Academy of Management Executive, 18(1), 88-93.