Business Strategy: Organisational Behaviour And Management Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Business Strategy for Organisational Behaviour and Management.

Answer:

Introduction

This essay focuses on two case study regarding organisational behaviour and management. The first case study discusses about any personal attachment of a management head with any other important personnel of the organisation. This king of attachment may negatively influence the decision making of the management head (Leiter et al. 2015). This kind of attachment may be resulted in the conflict with other stakeholders. Conflicts with stakeholders may be detrimental to the organisation growth process. Attachment can have not only with a person but also with any material or things. Attachment may be positive or negative. The second case study is about the role of a knowledge worker. Efficiency of the workers depends on the education, available information and skill of the worker (Jelley et al. 2015). This case study has mentioned three ways of knowledge gathering such as knowing why, knowing how and knowing whom. The essay tries to find out relationship between two case studies.

The originality of these two case studies can be explained by using numerous examples. The first case study deals with any personal attachment of office personnel with another person of same organisation or any other organisation. The person may have attachment with some other things that can hamper the work process. Personal attachment may restrict proper decision-making using the person’s own emotional intelligence (Xerri et al. 2014). The first example to explain the concept has been taken from scenario of World Bank management. During 2005, Paul Wolfowitz was appointed as the President of World Bank. He had a relationship with the senior communication officer of World Bank, Shaha Ali Riza. Due to having an emotional attachment with that officer, Wolfowitz took several conflicting decision, which was against organisation’s interest. After disclose of the relationship the position of Shaha Ali Riza had changed and thus she claimed promotion and compensation in the form of $60000 and future increase. However, this decision was under controversy as this claim was more than the mentioned amount under employee guideline. These incidences negatively affected the decision process and had impact on leadership attribute.

The second case study is about the role of knowledge worker. Here, this concept has been applied on a renowned movie, ‘Lord of the Rings’. This film has been made using collaboration with experienced members and innovations in the project. This is a real life example. Acquisition of knowledge involves purpose of specific knowledge acquisition, the process of work and application of knowledge in the work process and the third is relationship building and collaboration with the right person to perform the task efficiently.

Relationship to literature

Both the case study has relationship with each other. The case study of emotional attachment highlights different views of emotional attachment. According to renowned economist and sociologist Adam Smith, although self-interest is the fundamental driver of economy, there are some social bonds among different economic agents. Without cooperation, no one can succeed. In every society, people have different tasks and different specialisation. It is not possible for a single person to learn and do everything. Therefore, survival of a system always depends on survival of other (Kovjanic et al. 2012). For example, agriculture is the base of every economy. Agriculture, industry and service sector all are interrelated. A country cannot prosper with only single occupation. Therefore, emotional attachment takes birth from this social or personal attachment. Sometimes, this attachment works as a positive force (Lehmann, Ada and Marie-Christine Arnhold 2013). On the other, attachment with colleagues or any other person can influence decision-making process.

The case of World Bank President is the example of personal attachment. Now, being an institutional head he could exercise his power in decision-making process even if it was wrong. Every wrong decision of the president has negative impact on his leadership, which hampers organisational development process. If the employees are de motivated by the activity of leader, it affects organisational culture and its progress. Any personal relation like this may be detrimental in the path of organisation success (Ibrahim et al. 2015). Hence, it can be said that social relation is beneficial such as relationship with customers. Customer loyalty facilitates the growth of the organisation. The second case study focuses on collaboration and teamwork for the success of a project. Gathering knowledge and knowledge sharing increases effectiveness of the team work. In this case, emotional attachment of the team member with the leader helps to build a cohesive team (Puni et al. 2016).

Methodology

The case study has been conducted on secondary research. The authors have researched on the decision making process of a leader using 83 case studies. Different aspects of decision-making process such as cognitive psychology, management have been examined in this article. The example of World Bank president has been studied from the report of Ad Hoc Group of World Bank. However, the example mentioned about Venture of Samsung with automobile was based on a primary survey conducted by the authors. They interviewed the mid-level managers of the company in order to find out the type of collaboration of emotional attachment. Different examples have provided the researchers about different positive and negative attachment. The research has found how emotion affects the leadership quality in the context of organisational development. The focus was on the situation of different decision makers and the affected person from his decision-making.

The second case study is based on application of knowledge and innovation in the organisation. The authors of the article researched on several literatures. This research is a secondary research. This study is inductive study as the researchers have development new idea of knowledge worker based on the previous literature. From previous study, ideas of three ways of knowing, complexity theory, and ideas of social capital have been gathered. Idea of innovation in organisational development has been studied. Relating all those ideas with other, the researchers developed the idea of knowledge economy. Different examples have helped to find out relations among the variables. Both the studies are qualitative study based on positivism philosophy.

Results

The result of the first case study tells that emotional attachment is the main cause of wrong decision. Some example shows positive effect of attachment and some example shows negative attachment. Sometimes attachment of business organisation with the stakeholders and other organisation is for profit motive (G?ranzon, Bo and Ingela Josefson 2012). A person may have attachment with company’s logo or quality of the product. Any personal attachment with an office colleague sometime restrains the decision maker to take strict decision against the colleague, which underestimates the effect of decision-making (K?hk?nen 2016).

The second case study has found the facts about knowledge economy. The concept of knowledge diamond has been developed. This case study also tells about personal bonding with the co-workers in order to form a knowledge economy. Open innovation facilitates the knowledge sharing and makes a bridge among the local and distant co-workers. The example of the Lord of the Rings has shown the effect of knowledge diffusion among the participants. Positive attachment helps in the effective collaboration among the co-workers and team members with their leaders (Cross 2015).

Implication of the work

Both the case study has significance in the context of work place. Relation in workplace has impact on worker’s performance. Interdependence among the co-workers improves their performance by sharing knowledge and ideas. This kind of attachment improves the skill of an employee even if the employee is low skilled. In the achievement of organisation goal, emotional attachment with the workplace and colleague has positive impact (Ford 2014). On the other hand, negative attachment can increase employee turnover. Any personal attachment of an organisational leader with any particular employee can have negative impact on the organisation. The leader may overlook any unlawful activity and this may hamper the organisational development process. In the view of Chen, Adela and Elena Karahanna (2014), the workers, who have higher quality relationship with their superiors, are more likely to have more access of information, which is helpful in performance improvement. This implication is supported by Leader-membership theory in an organisation. Any romantic relationship between co-workers can lead to polarisation of the performance in the workplace, which may have negative impact on the other members (Harris et al. 2015). Collaboration with different organisation, stakeholders has positive impact on the organisation. Moreover, idea of knowledge worker is important in this context. These concepts enrich self decision-making process of the individual.

Conclusion

The essay highlights the aspects of emotional attachment of the organisational leader with the stakeholders of an organisation. Two theories have explained in these case studies. Attachment theory is the basic concept. The short form of attachment theory has been applied in the second case study, which is about knowledge economy. Positive attachment among the co-workers can form a self-sufficient knowledge economy, which sustains for a longer time. Investment in knowledge increases skill of the employees, which develops emotional intelligence. The employees and leader can choose which type of knowledge is to gather to achieve organisational goal, when the knowledge is application and in which place. If the employees have proper information about their objectives, they can succeed to achieve their goal. Effective knowledge sharing between the superior and the subordinate can be possible by proper communication (Andre Cavalcante and Sergio 2013). Flow of information among different tiers of the organisation increases effectiveness of the organisation functioning. Furthermore, effective communication is possible through some extent of emotional attachment.

Reflective analysis

Overall learning from the study is success of organisation depends on the collaboration among the different team member of the organisation. The leader has important role in decision-making process of the organisation. The leader is a person, who organises projects to achieve the specific goal. The success of the organisation depends on the type of attachment between the leader and the employees, employees with the organisation and among the co-workers. The leader needs to have a strong character to coordinate the functioning of the team member. According to the leader-membership theory, relationship between the tem member and the leader improves the flow of knowledge and required information from top to bottom line of the organisation.

It can be evaluated from the case study that, attachment with the internal and external stakeholders to achieve a common goal is beneficial for the organisation. However, any personal attachment may hamper to achieve organisational goal as it has negative impact on other employees. Attachment with family and friend helps to improve family business. Maintaining social relationship with external stakeholders such as customers, suppliers facilitates the business process. In the light of second case study, it can be said that, the role of knowledge worker is important for a large as well as small organisation. Emotional attachment among the team member smooths the process of knowledge sharing. It further gives birth of innovation. Innovation is the result of investment in knowledge formation, which further improves the skill of the workers. High skill workers are more productive compared to a low skilled worker.

References

Andre Cavalcante, Sergio. "Understanding the impact of technology on firms' business models." European Journal of Innovation Management 16, no. 3 (2013): 285-300.

Chen, Adela, and Elena Karahanna. "Boundaryless technology: understanding the effects of technology-mediated interruptions across the boundaries between work and personal life." AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction 6, no. 2 (2014): 16-36.

Cross, Robert L. "Leveraging intellect in a small business: Designing an infrastructure to support today's knowledge worker." Journal of Small Business Strategy 8, no. 1 (2015): 15-34.

Ford, Richard. "Brains versus beauty in the knowledge economy: the relative predictive powers of qualification and physical attractiveness in the decision to employ a knowledge worker." (2014).

G?ranzon, Bo, and Ingela Josefson, eds. Knowledge, skill and artificial intelligence. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

Harris, Kenneth J., Ranida B. Harris, John R. Carlson, and Dawn S. Carlson. "Resource loss from technology overload and its impact on work-family conflict: Can leaders help?." Computers in Human Behavior 50 (2015): 411-417.

Ibrahim, N., A. Ismail, N. K. Mohamed, S. S. Salim, and M. H. Yusuf. "Effect of psychological empowerment and transformational leadership on organizational commitment." Makara Hubs-Asia 19, no. 2 (2015): 75-86.

Jelley, R. Blake, and Stacey L. MacKinnon. "Leadership’s effects on employee well-being: synthesizing the qualitative evidence." In 45th Annual Atlantic Schools of Business Conference, p. 206. 2015.

K?hk?nen, Sonja. "Exploring knowledge worker motivation in autonomous and interdependent problem solving tasks on virtual platforms." (2016).

Kovjanic, Snjezana, Sebastian C. Schuh, Klaus Jonas, Niels Van Quaquebeke, and Rolf Dick. "How do transformational leaders foster positive employee outcomes? A self?€ђdetermination?€ђbased analysis of employees' needs as mediating links." Journal of Organizational Behavior 33, no. 8 (2012): 1031-1052.

Lehmann, Ada, and Marie-Christine Arnhold. "Leader-member exchange and affective supervisor commitment: how does supervisor's organizational embodiment influence the relationship?." (2013).

Leiter, Michael P, Arla Day, and Lisa Price. 2015. "Attachment Styles At Work: Measurement, Collegial Relationships, And Burnout". Sciencedirect.Com.

Puni, Albert, Collins B. Agyemang, and Emmanuel Selase Asamoah. "Leadership Styles, Employee Turnover Intentions and Counterproductive Work Behaviours." International Journal of Innovative Research and Development|| ISSN 2278–0211 5, no. 1 (2016).

Xerri, Matthew J., Silvia Nelson, and Yvonne Brunetto. "Importance of workplace relationships and attitudes toward organizational change in engineering asset-management organizations." Journal of Management in Engineering 31, no. 5 (2014): 04014074.

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