Budget Analysis: Nature And Scope Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Budget Analysis for Nature and Scope.

Answer:

The nature and scope of investments related to Mark and Paul can be assessed but before that the term investment should be understood properly. The word investment as per the accounting terms refers to purchasing of a financial product or investing the resources in a financial product with the expectation of returns in the future in the form of profit. In simpler terms investment is used as a tool for making more money. In order to improve the skills of mangers in relation to decision making the management of investment with the help of newest theories on portfolio management and capital market functioning is done (Marglin, 2014).

Mark and Paul have a wide scope of investment. The objective of analyzing the nature and scope of investment refers to understanding of the rules and regulations related to the different investment decisions and also identifying the domain in which the investment falls. In the case of Mark and Paul they can opt for an investment decision only after critically assessing the situation starting from the collection of initial funds till the expected returns from the venture. The various rules of investment decision making will help Mark and Paul to standardize the entire setting up process of the restaurant. The primary point that should be kept in mind is that the returns from the restaurant business should be predicted according to the present conditions and this should be ensured at any cost. Mark and Paul, being the investors must keep a vigilant eye for factors like the performance of the collection in comparison to the benchmark set. The various components that should be kept in mind in determining the health of the different investments are expense ratio, style, sector weighting and various other factors. The goal of the investment should always be given priority including the returns from that particular investment (Melo, Graham and Brage-Ardao 2013).

Sales Budget:

Particulars

June

July

August

September

TOTAL

Sales Volume of Meal (in units)

18000

22000

40000

Average Sale Price per meal

$45

$45

$45

$45

$45

Revenue from Meal Sales

$0

$0

$810,000

$990,000

$1,800,000

Sales Volume of Drinks (in units)

0

0

54000

66000

120000

Average Sale Price per drinks

$6

$6

$6

$6

$6

Revenue from Drinks Sales

$0

$0

$324,000

$396,000

720000

Projected Sales Revenue

$0

$0

$1,134,000

$1,386,000

$2,520,000

Cash Budget:

Particulars

June

July

August

September

TOTAL

Cash flow from Operating Activities:

Receipt from Sales Revenue

$0

$0

$1,134,000

$1,386,000

$2,520,000

Payment to Supplier

($2,000)

($51,000)

($60,000)

($113,000)

Staff Wages Paid

$0

$0

($9,936)

($9,936)

($19,872)

Monthly Overhead Costs

($5,000)

($5,000)

($5,000)

($5,000)

($20,000)

Net Cash Flow from Operating Activities

($5,000)

($7,000)

$1,068,064

$1,311,064

$2,367,128

Cash flow from Investing Activities:

Purchase of Machinery

($110,000)

($110,000)

Purchase of Furniture

($30,000)

($30,000)

Purchase of Vehicle

($43,000)

($43,000)

Purchase of Utensils

($18,000)

($18,000)

Net Cash Flow from Investing Activities

($201,000)

$0

$0

$0

($201,000)

Cash flow from Financing Activities:

Investment by owners

$281,000

$281,000

Owner's Drawings

($10,000)

($10,000)

($10,000)

($10,000)

($40,000)

Net Cash Flow from Financing Activities

$271,000

($10,000)

($10,000)

($10,000)

$241,000

Net Increase/(Decrease) in cash balance

$65,000

($17,000)

$1,058,064

$1,301,064

$2,407,128

Add: Opening Cash Balance

$0

$65,000

$48,000

$1,106,064

$0

Closing Cash Balance

$65,000

$48,000

$1,106,064

$2,407,128

$2,407,128

Labour Budget:

Particulars

June

July

August

September

TOTAL

Nos. of Casual Staff

3

3

3

Nos. of Hours in a day

6

6

12

Nos. of Days in a Week

6

6

6

Weekly Labour Hours

108

108

216

Weeks per month

4

4

4

Total Labour Hours per month

432

432

864

Labour Rate per hour

$23

$23

$23

Staff Wages Paid per month

$0

$0

$9,936

$9,936

$19,872

Sales budget is a major part of or chunk of the master budget and it displays the assumed or real number of units of sales and the price per unit fixed. Sales budget can also influence the remaining components of the master budget, indirectly or directly. The total amount of sales estimated with the help of a sales budget is used as a base figure in other component budgets (Johnston and Marshall 2016).

Labour budget can be used to provide the total direct labour cost and the total count of labour hours that is required for production. It forms great help to the management for planning the labour force requirements (DRURY 2013). The Labour budget is generally prepared after the creation of production budget because the production budget is essential for supplying the required data for the preparation of the Labour budget. The Labour budget is made with the primary purpose to facilitate programs of transfer and training of the personnel department and also to find out the sources of labour needed so that no issue arises due to non-availability of suitable labour personnel (Hofstede, 2012).

The cash budget provides a measure of the assumed receipts and assumed payments of cash during the stipulated period of the budge. In simpler terms, each and every factor that results in a change in the payments and receipts of cash is considered while the cash budget is prepared (Carraher and Van Auken, 2013). The cash budget prepares a provision for a minimum amount of cash balance for all times. Generally while preparing a cash budget the balance most probably will be equal to the operating expenses for a month added with certain other provisions. The chief accountant generally prepares this budget so that the management of the organization gets proper information and takes proper decisions (Michalski, 2013).

In case of Mark and Paul, it can be observed in the sales budget that the total revenue from meal sales is $1800000 and the revenue from drinks sales is $720000. The revenue earned is pretty high and this will help Mark and Paul to plan further investments that may result in more profit in turn. The sales budget also helps in revealing the seasonal fluctuations in the trend of sales. Here in this sales budget though, the figures seem fine and there is no major concern about the business until now.

The labour budget prepared presents the information that the staff wages paid per month is $19872 in total. As there is no mention of overtime in the question so no insight can be provided regarding this. Overall, the staff wages paid per month seems legitimate and fair.

The cash budget prepared in case of Mark and Paul shows the closing cash balance of the months of June, July, August and September the respective amounts of $65000, $48000, $1106064 and $2407128. It is very clear from the amounts that the cash balance once dipped in the month of July but then it regained its increasing trend and the cash balance for the month of September as recorded is highest. Excluding the month of July which suffered a loss the business of Mark and Paul, as can be observed is prospering normally.

The issues that Mark and Paul should consider while making their decision to invest in the restaurant is that the collection of enough funds in the form of the establishment cost, the identification of the project and its evaluation so as to ensure the viability of the project and its prospectus. Other practical issues that might be faced by Mark and Paul are regarding the location of the restaurant. The location of the restaurant should be such that it can be accessible by the people staying in the main part of the city as well as outskirts of the city. The food sold in the restaurant is also an important issue that needs to be given due importance. The food should be in accordance to the tastes and preferences of the local community and also the quality of the food should be at par with the set standards. Last but not the least the terms and condition of partnership shared between Mark and Paul should be clear and concise and agreed upon by both the partners.

Investment Two

Period

Particulars

0

1

2

3

4

Initial Investment

($390,000)

Net Cash Inflow

$100,000

$230,000

$190,000

$140,000

Net Annual Cash Flows

($390,000)

$100,000

$230,000

$190,000

$140,000

Cumulative Cash Flow

($390,000)

($290,000)

($60,000)

$130,000

$270,000

Payback Period

3.32

Discount Rate

12%

12%

12%

12%

12%

Discounted Cash Flow

-$390,000

$89,286

$183,355

$135,238

$88,973

Net Present Value

$106,851

Average Annual Cash Inflow

$165,000

Accounting Rate of Return

42.31%

As it can be observed in the above table the payback period refers to the number of years within which the original cost of investment can be recovered while the net cash flow is zero (Bierman and Smidt, 2012). The payback period here is 3.32 years which is not too long and further indicates that the business has a bright future (Larson and Gray 2013).

The net present value is $106851. A net present value that is positive, that is, a positive amount indicates that the net income induced by a project is more than the anticipated costs. In general, an investment with a positive Net Present Value will most probably be a profitable venture and the investment project with a negative Net Present Value will imply a net loss (Schutt et al., 2012).

The accounting rate of return as calculated is 42.31%. This indicates that the returns from the capital investment, made by Mark and Paul are both profitable and positive (Magni and Peasnell 2012). Though the accounting rate of return does not consider the time value of money, the venture will accrue enough revenue as the rate is quite high (Li 2015).

No, the two investments cannot be compared because in case of investment one the cash, sales and labour budget has been discussed and in case of investment two the accounting rate of return, the payback period and the net present value has been discussed. Thus discussion of the totally different aspect of both the investments, make them incomparable in nature.

References

Bierman Jr, H. and Smidt, S., 2012. The capital budgeting decision: economic analysis of investment projects. Routledge.

Carraher, S. and Van Auken, H., 2013. The use of financial statements for decision making by small firms. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 26(3), pp.323-336.

DRURY, C.M., 2013. Management and cost accounting. Springer.

Hofstede, G.H. ed., 2012. The game of budget control. Routledge.

Johnston, M.W. and Marshall, G.W., 2016. Sales force management: Leadership, innovation, technology. Routledge.

Larson, E.W. and Gray, C., 2013. Project Management: The Managerial Process with MS Project. McGraw-Hill.

Li, X., 2015. Accounting conservatism and the cost of capital: An international analysis. Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, 42(5-6), pp.555-582.

Magni, C.A. and Peasnell, K.V., 2012. Economic profitability and the accounting rate of return.

Marglin, S.A., 2014. Public Investment Criteria (Routledge Revivals): Benefit-Cost Analysis for Planned Economic Growth. Routledge.

Melo, P.C., Graham, D.J. and Brage-Ardao, R., 2013. The productivity of transport infrastructure investment: A meta-analysis of empirical evidence. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 43(5), pp.695-706.

Michalski, G., 2013. Planning optimal from the firm value creation perspective levels of operating cash investments. arXiv preprint arXiv:1301.3824.

Schutt, A., Chu, G., Stuckey, P.J. and Wallace, M.G., 2012, May. Maximising the Net Present Value for Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling. In CPAIOR (pp. 362-378).

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