In the present competitive and modern business world, the organisations are striving hard to manage their businesses. There are several changes that took place both in the internal and external business environment due to a number of factors. To sustain such dynamic business situations and perform in an effective manner, there is a need to have adequate resources such as organisational management, labour, material, methodology, etc. It is essential that all these resources are utilized in the best possible manner for the attainment of the business objectives. Among all the various factors, the most significant factor is the human resources as no organisation can live without the ability of the adequate human resource. In all the organisations, the workforce or the human resources are regarded as one of the significant, creative and innovative resources (Elnaga and Imran, 2013). Several researches highlight the importance of human resource and their importance in performing effectively in competitive business environment. Thus, the most valuable and crucial assets of the organisation is human resource. To manage the human resource and to enhance the efficiency and productivity, the organisations take several initiatives. There are number of strategies which the companies implement in order to enhance the productivity such as the most preferred one is employee training and development (Gruman and Saks, 2011). The paid on-job training can be utilized for improving and developing the performance of the employees, the attitudes, skills and knowledge. Employee training is one of the key human resource management functions and it is utilized for moderating the motivation and behaviour of the employees which directly contributes in the performance of the employees. This study comprises of two key variables i.e. job training (Independent variable) and employee performance (Dependent variable). The study will highlight the relationship between these variables with the help of a conceptual theoretical framework to have an in-depth understanding of the concept.
Identification of a problem
The contemporary business organisations are facing numerous issues due to continuously changing business environment which force business organisations to strategically adapt those changes and attain sustainability. The organisational performance is highly depends upon the performance of the human resource. The employee performance is completely depended upon the knowledge, motivation, attitude and skills of the employees and also the training offered to them. In past few decades, several theorists and researchers have tried to develop a relationship between the paid on-job training and the performance of the employees (Nassazi, 2013). The study is an attempt to highlight the key factors which develops a link between the employees’ performance and organisational training.
Specific Research Issues
- What is the link between the productivity of the employees and the job training?
- What is the link between the performance of the employees and the job training?
- What is the link between the job satisfaction of the employees and the job training?
Review of Literature
In the changing and uncertain world of business, the companies experience a number of limitations in sustaining the business challenges. The literature states vital importance of training programs in improving the performances of the employees and making the employees competent enough in dealing with the uncertainties. Effective training is advantageous for the business organisations in number of ways, such as, it act as significant in maintaining as well as building the abilities, both on the organisational as well as the individual level. Therefore, it is necessary for the employees to participate in the process of organisational training (Ndunguru, 2015). Moreover, it improves the retention capability of the workforce and thus decreases the turnover and job rotation of the employees. Furthermore, it presents the commitment of the organisation towards the employees and upsurge the motivation of the workers. The several training contributions results into attainment of the competitive benefits and improvement in the organisational productivity and performance of the employees (Shilongo, 2013).
Training is considered as the approach of teaching the organisational employees in order to make them gain the basic skills for performing their individual jobs. For the organisational employees, the paid on-job training not only enhances the job related knowledge but also helps in identification of the organisational objectives. The job training results in acquisition of the know-how, skills and knowledge (Malik, Danish and Munir, 2012). According to the author, the paid on-job training enhances the performance of the employees but it is also supportive for the satisfaction of the employees’ future needs. The training emphasis upon the current job while the continuous developments help the employees in preparing for the future job. The key aspect of job training is to improve the employees’ performance who all participates in the organisational training process. For identifying the impact of training on the employees’ performance, there is carried out the literature review (Manzoor, 2012). On the job training support the individuals in getting adequate insight of the job and improving the overall performance. In paid on-job training (OJT), the individuals learn from their own experiences and it is considered as one of the most time saving and cost effective manner. It is highly significant as well as efficient for the business organisations to offer the job training to the employees. Training is a vital part of the human resource for which is directly associated with performance of the employees (Fawad Latif, 2012).
Effective training programs and on-job training objects at improving the performance of the employees. Training is useful in bridging the existing gap among the standard desired performance and the current performance of the employees. The pain on-job training could be offered by the means of various methods such as the mentoring and coaching, subordinate participation and the peer cooperation (Amin, Saeed, Lodhi, Mizna, Iqbal and Tehreem, 2013). All such methods enable the organisational employees in participating in the job and attain better and improved performances, thus resulting in improved organisational performance. The training programs focus of the development of the employees and also help in attaining the most effective use of the company’s human resources by achieving a number of competitive benefits. Thus, it acts as necessary for the organisations to plan and conduct training programs for the employees in order to increase their competencies and abilities required at the organisational workplace (Noe and Peacock, 2002). The paid on-job training enhances the capabilities of the workers as well as sharpens the creativity level and thinking competence so that the employees can have better decision making approach. Moreover, it also enhances the ability of the employees to effectively deal with the customers and have a positive approach towards their queries or complaints. Training improves the self-efficacy which resulted in the improved job performance by the means of substituting the old-traditional practices by the contemporary and efficient practices (Khan, Khan and Khan, 2011).
Training is also considered as a planned intervention objects at improving the aspects of the job performance of the employees. The various on-job training programs support the employees in reducing the level of frustration and job related anxiety. The inability of the employees to perform the job, results into employee turnover (Tahir, Yousafzai, Jan and Hashim, 2014). If adequate trainings are offered to them, there can be increased chances of motivation and employee retention. The more there is a gap among the skills required and skills possessed, the greater will be level of job dissatisfaction. Authors suggests the continuous training sessions as a tool for the improving the satisfaction of the employees and enhanced employee performances (Hameed and Waheed, 2011).
The Importance of Training
Training is considered as a vital and imperative aspect for the business organisations for revamping the employees’ performances and their individual success and growth. It is advantageous both for the employees as well as the employers in various aspects. The employees develop as more productive and efficient as the training is offered to them. The businesses improve the competence of the workers by offering them comprehensive trainings (Falola, Osibanjo and Ojo, 2014). The trainings are not only important for up surging the organisational productivity but also for increase the motivation level of the employees by letting them inform about the significance of their respective jobs. The key advantages which can be gained through the employee training comprises of reduced employee turnover, innovation in products and strategies, capacity to adopt new methods and technologies, resulting in financial gain, increased efficiencies in processes, increased motivation, increased job satisfaction and improved employees’ performances (Aguinis and Kraiger, 2009).
As per the various authors and a number of researchers, the employees who tend to remain satisfied with their respective jobs possess higher job performance which ultimately results in high job retention and contended workforce. Moreover, it is also regarded as that the workers have high turnover rate when they are not satisfied and thus it results into demotivation of the workers a decreased employee performance (Saks and Haccoun, 2010). The performance of the employees is higher in the satisfied and contended employees and the organisational management feels relaxing in order to motivate them and attaining the desire targets. The organisational employees feel satisfied if they feel that they are capable enough to perform the job which is attained by the means of improved training programs (Bulut and Culha, 2010). By identifying the importance of training practices in the organisations, the mangers or the executives can develop improved working environment which results in enhanced motivation and performance of the employees. As per the author, a business organisation that laid down high emphasis upon the trainings as a source of competitive edge, build effective systems which can ensure regular on-job training sessions to the employees (Khan, 2012). The researcher highlights that the trained and competent employees are more competent in attaining the performance targets and achieving competitive benefits in the market. The organisational on-job training is considered as the approach of enabling the workforce for the accomplishment of the tasks with higher level of efficiency, therefore regarded as extremely vital part of managing the performances of the employees in a strategic manner (Phillips, 2012).
The significance of paid on-job training for the performance of the employees, by the means of fastening the learning process, is also stated in a number of researches. The performance of the employees attained by the means of training is regarded as a tool for immediate improvement in the skills, abilities and knowledge of the employees for performing organisational tasks. Therefore, an increase level of employee commitment is achieved for the achievement of the organisational objectives (Cekada, 2010). The authors described that the training must leads to a culture of improved learning for enhancing the performance of the employees and thus results in higher organisational returns. The employee performance includes various factors which indirectly or directly affect the employees’ work. The performance of the employees can be classified in five specific aspects i.e. rewarding, rating, developing, monitoring and planning. The first stage is planning where the training goals are set, strategies are developed, the tasks are outlines and thus the goals are accomplished (Olaniyan and Ojo, 2008). In the monitoring phase, the organisational goals are outlined to analyze that whether the trainings are going well or not in order to meet the goals. Monitoring is done for measuring the employee performance and continuous feedbacks are offered to them so that there can be faster attainment of goals. The continuous monitoring offers an opportunity for evaluating how well the employees can meet the standards and perform. In the development phase, the employees improved their performances and the deficiencies are also addressed through effective training sessions (Owoyemi, Oyelere, Elegbede and Gbajumo-Sheriff, 2011).
Theory for dependent variable and independent variable
A variable can be understood as an aspect which can be changed or modified. There are two variables i.e. independent variable and dependent variable. The dependent variable is the one which is measured by the experimenter and the independent variable which is manipulated by the experimenter on the basis of changes made in depended variable. There is a cause and effect relationship between the dependent and the independent variable (Achen, 2000).
Explaining Independent variable
The independent variable can be better explained through learning theory such as according to the learning theory, the individuals give different answers to the situations or there are different individuals learning based upon the behaviour or the cognitive. Such as, here the independent variable is job training so the job training is perceived differently by different employees. If there will be a behavioral approach then the training will be used according to the individuals behaviour but if it is seen as cognitive then it will be seen or taken as for problem solving so that there can be gained a better control upon the job or work (Akdenix, et al., 2016). There are several authors and researchers that eave developed a relationship between the learning approach of the individuals and their learning outcomes (Pritchard, 2017).
Explaining dependent variable
The dependent variable can be better explained through motivation theory, According to the motivation theory of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, there are some specific needs of the individuals which are necessary to be accomplishing in order to keep the individual motivated. As per the Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, it is essential that in an organisation, the employer must satisfy the physiological as well as safety needs of the employees in the initial stage. In this study, the dependent variable is employee performance, it can be analyzed that f the training provided to the employees are satisfactory in nature, then only the individual can eb motivated and there could be attained improved employee performance (Gopalan, Bakar, Zulkifli, Alwi and Mat, 2017). In the views of various other authors, it has also been stated that it is one of eth vital part of eth organisations to keep the workforce motivated and meet their needs so as the employees expect a return of their work done. So both for the satisfaction of needs and expectancy of the employees, it is necessary that effective training must be offered to them to keep them motivated (Beck, 2003).
Theoretical Framework: Understanding the relationship between on-job training and employees’ performance
To implement the study, the following independent variable as well as dependent variable is demonstrated in the theoretical framework. The on the job training, training and development and training design are the major independent variables and employee’s performance is the dependent variable. The theoretical framework will explain the relationship between these variables.
Impact of training design, training and Development and on the job training on Employee’s performance
The several studies and researches offer an evidence of robust and positive association among the employees’ performances and the on-job training. The training and the development programs are regarded as the vital practice of human resource management which directly impacts the employees’ performance quality in respect with the skills and work-related knowledge (Nassazi, 2013). Therefore, all such things results in improved employee performance. The relationship between the performance and training ultimately contributes towards the excellent organizational performance (Lamba and Choudhary, 2013). The training design and paid job training is one of the most significant ways for the identification of the deprived employees’ needs and then helps in building the required capability and competence level so that there can be improved performances and faster attainment of the goals. There are several authors who have examined variations in the performances of the employees experienced due to the training programs (Ahmad and ud Din, 2009). The implementation of the training programs acts as a solution for the business organisation which lacks motivation, higher productivity and competence level among the employees. According to the author, the competency and the motivation level of the employees keeps on changing according to the trainings programs (Gruman and Saks, 2011). There are several employees which undergone these training program and develop their capabilities to understand the job profile in more effective manner and perform in an improved way. The trainings not only enhance the performance of the employees by performing the current job with increased knowledge, attitude and skills (Elnaga and Imran, 2013).
With the help of training design and training programs, there is development of the employees’ competences and also enable them to perform the job related work in an effective manner and attain the business objectives and gaining competitive benefits (Ndunguru, 2015). The performances of the employees is also impacted by few environmental aspects that comprises of politics and power, performance appraisal systems, job design, organizational structure and corporate culture. If there are issues in all such afctors then the performance of the employees also decreases because of absence of adequate knowledge, attitude and the skills (Shilongo, 2013). To achieve effective training and to attain assured positive impact of the training programs on the performance of the employees, there must be effectively considered al these factors. The authors stated that the employees feel more committed towards their work as well as the organisational goals when the trainings are offered to them and so the overall performance of the employees also get elevated. The various reports and researches develop a positive relation among the productivity of the employees and the effective training sessions (Malik, Danish and Munir, 2012). It is the key responsibility of all the organisational managers to first recognize the various aspects which act as a barricade in the implementation of the training programs and thus there must be taken effective steps to neutralize the impact upon the performances of the employees (Aguinis and Kraiger, 2009). The authors also concluded and stated that there is attained improved level of commitment when the training attained the learning outcomes and enhances the overall performance both at the organisational as well as the individual level. Usually, it can also be debated that the impact of the training sessions on the employees results in higher level of motivation, enhanced organisational commitment and improved job satisfaction (Elnaga and Imran, 2013). The work related attitudes, the capabilities and the approach towards the jobs, all have significant relation with the trainings offered to the employees. There is a need that all the trainings must be planned and strategically scheduled so that it can raise the organisational commitment (Manzoor, 2012).
The key objective of all the training programs is to increase the value of the employees’ performances. Therefore, all the various business organisations must design the training and development sessions of the workers as a regular activity. The purpose of training programs is that what all the employees will achieve after experiencing the training. The business organisations plan as well as implement the trainings for the employees by identifying the key objectives and purpose and gaining adequate skills, abilities and knowledge of the employees so that the training session can give the best possible results and improved employees’ performances. Thus, the organisations must develop and design the training session with clear set of objectives and goals while keeping the focus on the needs of the organisations as well as the employees. The study chiefly emphasis upon the impact of job training upon the performances of the employees. Training plays a significant role in building of capabilities of the employees for performing the jobs in a more efficient and effective way. It also help in preparing the workforce to have effective hold of the future positions in the business organisations with higher level of competence and supports to overcome the incompetence of any job area. The study concludes that effective training is regarded as a key aspect for the improved employees’ and organisational performances and thus it can increase the firms’ competence. It also helps in supporting the gap that exists among the current and the required skills of the employees for improved performances. Thus, it can be concluded that the trainings session must be designed in an effective manner and regular trainings must be given to them so that the overall performance of the organisation as well as the employees can be improved.
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