Bates Guide To Physical Examination And History-Taking Essay

Question:

Describe about the Bates Guide To Physical Examination And History-Taking?

Answer:

1: Name of the common pathogens that cause HEENT

Some of the common pathogens of HEENT (Head, Eyes, Ear, Neck and Throat) are- Candida, Herpes Simplex, Haemophilus influenza Type B, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, Eikenella, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, etc. These bacteria can cause common cold, Sinusitis, Otitis, Pharyngitis, Epiglottitis and Laryngotracheitis, Bronchitis, Pneumonia, etc. (Bickley & Szilagyi, 2012).

Antibiotics used to treat HEENT diseases

In the treatment of these diseases, different types of medicines need to be involved. Most of the viruses and bacteria, caused these diseases are very infectious as well as contagious. Also, it is also found that most of the causative pathogens such as influenza, enterococcus or staphylococcus gained more resistant to the drug used to treat previously discussed diseases. Therefore, multiple drugs could be administered to treat these diseases, which may include amoxicillin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline, clavulanate, etc (Haber et al., 2015). For other unconfirmed illness, use of multiple drugs is also beneficial as the application of multiple drugs can treat diseases without harming the patient as well as without identifying the potential pathogens. However, if the disease does not cure with the application of multiple drugs, then the patient need to go through a proper assessment to identify the causative pathogens.

2: Standards of antibiotics, which can be administered in the pediatric population

From the research, it is found that same antibiotics could be administered to both of the adults and children. However, the nurse should be careful about the doses of medicines. In initial therapy for acute rhinosinusitis among the children following drugs could be used-

Amoxicillin (45 mg/kg/day)

Clindamycin (30-40 mg/kg/day)

Linezolid (30 mg/kg/day), for children no more than 12 years old

Amoxicillin- clavulanate (80-90 mg/ kg/day) [for severe infection]

Ceftriaxone (50mg/kg/day) [for severe infection]

Levofloxacin (10-20 mg/kg/ day) [for severe infection]

Assessment findings to prescribe antibiotic for respiratory symptoms or HEENT

A daytime cough, persistent nasal discharge (lasting for minimum ten days)

Purulent nasal discharge (opaque, colored and thick) (lasting for three days or more)

3: From the research, it is observed that the patient management, diagnosis, and etiology for a child who is wheezing can vary according to the child's age.

Children are more sensitive to the drugs than the adults are. It is known that the growth of a child varies depending on their ages. On the other hand, children of different ages do not possess similar physical condition (Seashore & Lohr, 2011). Such as the physical condition of a two-month-old child will certainly differ from 3 years old child. Therefore, nurses need to follow different diagnosis and management for children with different ages.

A daytime cough, persistent nasal discharge, and wheezing are considered as helpful to guide a proper diagnosis.

Continuous and day time coughing for more than three days is a clear sign of viral infection experienced by a child (Sawyer, 2011). Other clinical findings are also helpful since the color of purulent nasal discharge can indicate the severity of the infection.

In this case, chest X-ray can play an important role in diagnosis as it is helpful to find out the amount of thickened cough accumulated in the lungs and causing respiration problems.

References

Bickley, L., & Szilagyi, P. G. (2012). Bates' Guide To Physical Examination And History-Taking. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Haber, J., Hartnett, E., Allen, K., Hallas, D., Dorsen, C., Lange-Kessler, J., ... & Wholihan, D. (2015). Putting the Mouth Back in the Head: HEENT to HEENOT. American journal of public health, 105(3), 437-441.

Sawyer, S. (2011). Pediatric Physical Examination & Health Assessment. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Seashore, C. J., & Lohr, J. A. (2011). Fever of unknown origin in children.Pediatric annals, 40(1), 26-30.

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