Increasing awareness of climate change impacts around the globe has led to companies to adopt CDP disclosures (Sussman, 2008). Climate Change Information Request a program of CDP analyses greenhouse gas emissions of company activities. Such disclosures norms strive to attain reduced exposure to climatic change and to mitigate effects that cause climate change. The CDP body works along with various corporates and investors to study and analyse ways such that positive impact can be caused on the environment. In such disclosure norms companies are required to provide details regarding their greenhouse gas emissions in their CDP by means of an Online Response System (ORS). Australian regulatory boards are striving to attain positive climatic impacts through disclosure norms. Qantas Airways, a leading airline in Australia and is the flag carrier in Australia. The Company was established in the year 1921 in Winton, Queensland (Bulkeley, 2015). Currently it flies to most parts of the world and has its headquarters in Mascot, Sydney, Australia. It enjoys a 65% Australian market share and 14.4% of passengers flying inside or outside of Australia. The Company is focused on reduction in emission targets such that it can make positive impact globally. It has been rated as a A-grade Company in its Climate score, due to its carbon related activities undertaken. The scope of this report analyses carbon related impact on the climate caused by the Company.
Climate change information request 2015 aims at obtaining several data and information in regards to carbon emissions done by the Company. Qantas Airways is a well-known airline that is focused on reducing its emissions, which is target driven by the Climate change procedures. The Company is committed to reduce its emissions and make use of sustainable resources as much as possible (1037-1070, 2008). Though the several airplanes that belongs to the airline functions on fossil fuel, which is a non-renewable and non-sustainable source, it is planting trees and reducing its carbon footprints in other activities. Most office of Qantas are adopting renewable sources of energy for their regular functionality and reducing wastages of energy. All sources that leads to climatic impact are analysed and their carbon footprints are calculated. Each of such items are taken and transformed in an endeavor to reduce impact. The Company is focused on innovation and sustaining renewable mechanisms for every purposes, also devising means by which fossil fuel can best be replaced. Except for where necessary, the Company is not making use of fossil fuel adapting to efficient energy usages (Karim, 2008). At various offices it is making use of solar panels and wind energy sources to reduce its impact on the climate. The Company has adopted all possible means to store and publish data that are in accordance to its Climate impact. Its disclosure agreement provides detailed data and procedures regarding each and every heads that are provided by the CDP. The high scoring potentiality of the Company is reflected by the valuable perspective it attaches to the activities that is being performed by the Company for responding to climate change. Through operational excellence and energy efficient usage, it has been able to make considerable impact on creating an innovative measure.
The Paris Agreement has been ratified at a very fact pace determining heavy reliance on developing Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDGs) on corporates. The new agreement makes it clear that for climate change to be impacted, corporates needs to adapt to norms and procedures that prevents further degradation of the environment. Business strategies needs to revolutionize their businesses based on low-carbon that can limit rise in temperatures (Cotter, 2012). Preventing global warming has become a heavy task, with generation of reliance on everyone to contribute towards the cause in an unprecedented manner. For the scope of the current analysis of Qantas Airlines, legitimacy theory has been adopted. Legitimacy theory considers generalized perception in regards to beliefs and actions of an entity on basis of socially constructed norms. Legitimacy theory applied on this study will consider that climate degradation has been initiated and, Qantas is trying to make a positive impact to restore such degradation. There is a tremendous amounts of stress that is caused on the climate due to carbon emissions from several activity that can be reduced by socially accepted norm of legitimacy theory (Mills, 2009). The theory allows development and consideration of several facts and figures that will help development of the study and to reach its goals and objectives.
Literature Review - Summary
Climate change has been a grave concern around the world, with its various grieve facets faced globally. costs of climate change is being borne by humanity in all forms, as floods, rising ocean levels, rising global temperatures, increasing incidence of skin related diseases due to ultra-violet ray exposures and so on (Archel, 2009). Selecting a path today will help shape the future tomorrow to transit the entire economy towards a more sustainable future. Businesses in general and also in particular continue to face immense risks from climate changes experienced globally due to climate change from rising regulations and norms to growing awareness of consumers. Airlines have been considered to be one of the world’s leading polluting industry that directly combusts harmful gases in high atmospheric levels (Gibson, 2008). Such high levels of pollutants by the airlines have been known to cause several diseases including lung related disorders. Thus, airlines needed to adopt disclosure norms that proves their intentions in reducing their carbon emissions and impacting the environment in a net positive manner. Such disclosure norms are undertaken by companies in CDP format containing several heads regarding possible transformations or processes they are adopting (H?hne, 2011). Qantas Airways in Australia has been able to make an overall positive impact on its environment by reduction in its overall carbon emissions. This scope of literature review includes relevant and potential theoretical concepts that has been adopted by the Company.
The dependent variable in this construct comprises of the climate change that is being impacted by activities of the corporation (Pinkse, 2009). Qantas Airlines in connection with its external as well as internal stakeholders have adopted several procedures that can provide positive impact on the climate change. Internal stakeholders along with Investors of the Company are committed to the long term effect that climate change can create hence have made a financial provision that is dedicated to creating a positive impact. The Company has a strong Board of Corporate Governance that provides yearly disclosures on ground of total financial commitment to back initiatives and innovation for creating a positive impact on the climate (Rankin, 2011). Along with planting of trees, adapting to renewable sources of energy, the Company is also taking other initiatives that can go a long way to create sustenance. It investors have also supported the joint initiative program and innovation techniques for the Company. Customers are growing their awareness regarding the impacts that they can cause to the environment by joining hands with corporates that are interested in making a positive impact on the environment (Milne, 2011).
Qantas Airlines in its recent CDP disclosures and target development have committed to saving of bird life and preserving natural fauna. It has also committed to measure targeted outcome on measurement of reduction in melting of Southern Polar Ice-Caps. Through joint programs with investors and other stakeholder groups it has aimed at preserving the environment and committing a sustainably achievable goal that can generate greater impacts. Polar ice cap melting have been associated with rising sea-levels. Various shores in Australia have recently experienced submerging of shores and advancing of beaches (Lawrence, 2009). This can directly be linked to commercial activity along with emissions that has led to rising of temperatures in Southern hemisphere. Qantas cannot depict achievement of its environmental targets similar to financial ones but can analysis data and disclose requirements related to them.Conflicting previous results
Earlier research and analysis of data reveal that impact and harm already done on the climate is way beyond reversible. Qantas endeavors in order to create a positive impact on the environment might not be able to yield positive results within sufficient periods of time. As climate change has been precedent from a long period of time, impact it has already created is irreversible hence, probably corporations around the world needs to create an effort to be carbon negative such that effects of climatic change can be reversed. This theoretical construct is aimed at depicting the various hypothesis Qantas has adopted in order that positive impact on the environment can be generated.
According to CDP it contains various points and headings which can generate a positive impact on the climate and on the environment. The theoretical and conceptual analytical model for the purpose and scope of analysis deals in getting information in the brochure from the companies that can develop a positive and sustainable impact on the environment. This brochure can be assessed by investors and other stakeholders of the Company in order to evaluate the impact generated on the environment.
Key theoretical constructs
Theoretical construct is meant to meant to analyse models, theories and concepts in order to analyse the study. The study will encompass two primary variables namely dependent variables and independent variables (b8f65cb373b1b7b15feb-c70d8ead6ced550b4d987d7c03fcdd1d.ssl.cf3.rackcdn.com, Retrieved on 7th September 2017). Dependent variable in this scope of study has been determined to climate change. Climate change is a prolonged impact that is caused from pollutants and emissions, which gives rise to carbon. Emissions caused by burning of fossil fuel from airplanes have further added to levels of pollution causing climatic impact.
Through this theoretical construct it can clearly be understood that endeavors undertaken by Qantas for reducing impact from carbon footprints add to positivity. The independent variable which are several efforts made by Qantas in Australia have been considered to generate immense effect on the dependent variable in reducing the harnessing causes degrading the climate.
The scope of this study through several theoretical and conceptual framework aims to establish a connect between the Dependent Variable (DV) and the Independent Variable (IV). Qantas has undertaken several efforts to draw on a connection that can establish relation between DV, which is climate change with that of independent variable (IV) which are all efforts made by the Company towards making of a positive impact.
The scope of the research also envisages another prominent variable which includes the time duration during which such efforts are made to reduce the impact of pollution (Mills, 2009). More the prolonged time period for which activities are undertaken to reduce impact from pollution more is the effect on the climate. Such prolonged efforts made by Qantas can lead to reduction in global temperature and create a positive impact on the environment.
The research hypothesis for the study is aimed at researching the following questions.
Research Question 1: What is climatic impact from various emissions by Qantas Airways?
Research Question 2: What ways has Qantas Airways strategized climatic impacts into business objectives?
Research Question 3: How are the endeavors made by Qantas Airways focused?
Research Question 4: What is the targeted emissions reduction in the current year against past years?
For the purpose of this study, there will be two hypothesis that will be assumed in the scope of discussion. Null Hypothesis (H0) and the alternate Hypothesis (H1), which will be governed by the variables. In the Null Hypothesis the basis of assumption lies that climatic change will not be impacted through any endeavors undertaken by Qantas. Whereas in the Alternate Hypothesis, it has been assumed that DV which is the climate change will be a function of the IV which are several activities undertaken by Qantas. The study will aim to establish truth of alternate hypothesis and reject null hypothesis in totality.
Proxy Measures for Theoretical Constructs
Dependent (DV), Independent (IV), or Control Variable (CV)
Impact on Southern Ice-Caps
Rate at which ice-caps are melting
IV-Activities undertaken by Qantas Airways
Qantas Airways CDP data
Rising water levels in Australian shores
Flooding and rising sea-levels along sea-shores
IV-Activities undertaken by Qantas Airways
Scientific data measures and collection
A research method is important for the purpose of undertaking any type of study. For purpose of analysis it is integral that data is collected, which can be done from sources primary and secondary in nature. This study has progressed on the basis of inductive analysis of explorative research philosophy. A research philosophy is one which a scholar adopts for the purpose of conducting his research. In explorative research philosophy, various theories and concepts in accordance to legitimacy theory has been adopted and explored. Further data has mostly been obtained from CDP brochure of Qantas Airways in ways such that all relevant and critical information can be obtained. Primary data collection has been avoided due to lack of time and lack data availability for Qantas Airways. Secondary data obtained from Qantas Airways and CDP format reveals several facts regarding the corporation. The research method has adopted mostly analysis of qualitative data and quantitative data has been ignored in totality for the sake of simplicity of analysis. Qualitative procedures have been initially analysed in this proposal post, which quantitative measures has been adopted and analysed. There is scope for further research for including more varied conceptual models that can reflect regarding the various procedures for environmental and climatic impacts.
1037-1070. (2008). The strategic significance of environmental sustainability by Australian-listed property trusts. Journal of Property Investment & Finance, 522-540.
Archel, P. H. (2009). Social disclosure, legitimacy theory and the role of the state. Accounting, auditing & accountability journal, 1284-1307.
b8f65cb373b1b7b15feb-c70d8ead6ced550b4d987d7c03fcdd1d.ssl.cf3.rackcdn.com. (Retrieved on 7th September 2017). Australian Climate Leadership Report.
Bulkeley, H. &. (2015). Governing climate change. Routledge.
Cotter, J. &. (2012). Institutional investor influence on global climate change disclosure practices. Australian journal of management, 169-187.
Gibson, J. L. (2008). Challenges to the impartiality of state supreme courts: Legitimacy theory and “new-style” judicial campaigns. American Political Science Review, 59-75.
H?hne, N. B. (2011). Contributions of individual countries’ emissions to climate change and their uncertainty. Climatic change, 359-391.
Karim, M. F. (2008). Impacts of climate change and sea-level rise on cyclonic storm surge floods in Bangladesh. Global Environmental Change, 490-500.
Lawrence, P. (2009). Australian climate policy and the Asia Pacific partnership on clean development and climate (APP). From Howard to Rudd: continuity or change? International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 281-299.
Mills, E. (2009). A global review of insurance industry responses to climate change. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance-Issues and Practice, 323-359.
Milne, M. J. (2011). Climate change accounting research: keeping it interesting and different. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 948-977.
Pinkse, J. &. (2009). International business and global climate change. Routledge.
Rankin, M. W. (2011). An investigation of voluntary corporate greenhouse gas emissions reporting in a market governance system: Australian evidence. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 1037-1070.
Sussman, F. G. (2008). Adapting to climate change: A business approach (p. 41). Arlington, VA: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.