Aviation Management Analysis Essay

Question:

Write how stress leads to aviation related accidents and mention about Yerkes-Dodson Law with all the referencing and recommendation.

Answer:

Stress and Aviation Accidents

In the industry of aviation stress is the phenomenon that is common, and there are three sources which it is composed of psychological, environment and physiological stressors. Due to the influence of their occupation professional pilots are likely to experience stress during flight, during ground work activities and even during their personal time (Hanoch, 2004). The stress is due to responsibility, workload and thousand of passenger's safety that are transported across the world. This stress causes the impact on one's job, health, cognitive function, and performance. This stress jeopardizes the relevance in decision making and cognitive function leading to errors by the pilot. There is high work load management and good health both psychological and physical that is required to carry out their work. There are various accidents that have occurred due to the high-stress level of pilots such as the American Airlines Flight 1420, Asiana Airlines Flight 1420 and the Polish Airforce Tu-154. These are one of the most tragic accidents that occurred due to high-stress levels of the pilots (Ison, 2015).

The Yerkes-Dodson Law illustrates the impact that arousal due to emotions on the task of performance. There is the linear relationship that arousal has with the performance. Safety in the world of aviation is dependent on the air pilot since too much emotional stimulation good lead to them become overloaded and decisions that are not right leading to accidents (POULOSE, 1992).

Their needs to various training that are required to conducted for minimizing the stress level of the pilots (Rosekind, 2006). It is necessary that the crew needs to be trained in behavioral strategies so that they can manage the stress.

Automation of Aircraft

Though there has been increased automation of the cock-pit, however this has lead to various issues. There is a decline in the basic cognitive and manual flying skills because there being a lack of feel and practice with the aircraft. A system failure caused by the un-commanded disengagement leads to consequences that are advance and damaging. There can be the distraction for the pilots who are interacting through automation. There is too much time that may be spent by the crews of flight in trying to understand the conditions, origin or the causes of multiple alarm or an alarm; this could lead to distraction from the tasks that are a priority and the flying of the aircraft. There may be difficulty in understanding the situation and to regain/gain control when it is the limit that is reached by automation. There being failures in automation or disconnect the tasks that the flight crew or the pilots are allotted may go beyond their individual capabilities or as a team. There might not be sufficient information that a flight crew has regarding malfunctions or failures of automation of the effects that it may have. For aircraft that are highly automated, there may be problems and issues that occur when the transitioning to a model that is degraded example there being various failures requiring less automated or a manual flight. There are limitations that exist with respect to the Diagnostic systems that are dealing with the various failure; there are various unexpected issues and situations that require deviations from the SOP or the Standard Operating Procedures.

This leads to the situation of automation dependency which has been described commonly as an issue in which pilots who fly routines with systems that are fully automated are confident with respect to the controlling of the airplanes trajectory only with the systems full functionality. This lack of confidence usually stems from the combination of having knowledge that is inadequate of the systems that are automated themselves unless there is the employment of all and there is manual flying which is lacking and management competence of the aircraft.

The solution to ensuring that there is no damage caused due to the automation of flying is that pilots are required to be trained. It is necessary that sufficient understanding is given regarding both the both the full as well as the partial use and the basis for automated system functionality. Ensuring that the pilots understand the essentiality of monitoring the function that are expected from automation so that in the case of an event where there are inputs that are incorrect or there is some kind of malfunction have consequences that are unexpected it is necessary to have corrective actions on time (Wald, Fay, & Gleich, 2010). There are various such kinds of efforts that could be made to resolve the issues that are resulted from automation of flying.

References

Hanoch, Y. (2004). When less is more: Information, Emotional Arousal and the Ecological Reframing of the Yerkes-Dodson Law. Theory & Psychology, 14(4), 427-452.

Ison, D. (2015). Comparative Analysis of Accident and Non-Accident Pilots. Journal Of Aviation Technology And Engineering, 4(2), 20.

POULOSE, M. (1992). Microwave landing system modeling with application to air traffic control automation. Journal Of Aircraft, 29(3), 348-354.

Rosekind,. (2006). 'Alertness Management in Aviation Operations: Enhancing Performance and Sleep'.Asem, 77(12).

Wagener, F. & Ison, D. (2014). Crew Resource Management Application in Commercial Aviation.Journal Of Aviation Technology And Engineering, 3(2),

Wald, A., Fay, C., & Gleich, R. (2010). Introduction to aviation management. Berlin: Lit.

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