The term “Artificial Intelligence” (AI) is referred to the process of investigating the intelligent behaviour of problem solving and creating the intelligent computer systems (Turban et al. 2018). It is the theory and the development of the computer systems that are able to perform the tasks normally needing human intelligence like speech recognition, visual perceptions, translation in between the languages and decision making. Artificial intelligence traces the work of machine which would need the intelligence when performed by the human beings. There are two categories of AI and they are strong artificial intelligence and weak artificial intelligence. The several different types of it include automation, intelligence amplification, evolutionary algorithms, rule based system, activity recognition, machine learning, natural language understanding and robotics. In general, the economic usage of Aritificial intelligence could be separated into five different categories namely, deep learning, dematerialisation, robotics, autonomous driving and gig economy (Bodas-Sagi and Labeage 2018). Right from the nineteenth century, the production robots are replacing the employees working the organisation as of the advancements in science and technology. The creative solutions such as of the introduction of 3D printers and self learning ability of the human beings of such production robots would replace the human workers. It is also to note that the artificial intelligence is also replicating the actions and decision of the humans in absence of the human shortcoming like limited time, fatigue and emotion. AI and robotics are also helping the companies to get a consistent performance over various artificial intelligence machines then it is over multiple human workers. They are also reducing the error and the opportunities for reaching accuracy along with greater degree of precision are likely to occur. Apparently, the science of robotics and the artificial intelligence could be put in the phenomenon of mining or other processes of fuel exploration. Hence, it could be said that these technological changes are helping the business environment and the society better for most of the people, especially for the ones working for or in an organisation. The advancement in the power of the computers would result in artificial intelligence which becomes increasingly smarter (Hager et al. 2017). The real time access and predictive analysis to the artificial intelligence and tasking in the areas would be present on modern mobile devices. The Society would face several challenges in realising technologies which are advantageous for the humanity. Instead of intruding and destroying on the rights of privacy of the human beings and the freedom for getting an access to information, technologies would benefit them to a great extent. The surging potential and capabilities of the artificial intelligence (AL) and robots would undergo a wide range of current jobs replaced. The professional roles like that of the lawyers, accountants and the doctors could also be replaced by the artificial intelligence in the coming years by 2025. Furthermore, the low-skill workers would also reallocate to the tasks which are non-susceptible to the concept of computerization (Frey and Osborne 2017). In the business context, there would be big losers and winners as because of the fact that the artificial intelligence, robotics and collaborative technologies would transform the nature of working. With the same, it is doubted that the data expertise would become exponentially more vital in the coming years and the information hoarders would slow down the speed of their institutions and will also forsake the power of the artificial intelligence during the time when the competitors would exploit it.
Current demographics of teachers in Australia
The sector of teaching profession comprises of the areas of university, school or any vocational training, especially the possibilities of the advanced training for the adults (Becker et al. 2017). With the increase in technology, there is a notable increase in the teaching sector of Australia. At present, the proportional of the male educators in Australia has risen up to a significant number and it is expected to increase even further. From the above statistics, it is clear that the number of the young professionals in the Australian universities and schools is already increasing every year. With the same, the range of additional qualifications up to globally acknowledged degrees are also rapidly increasing, hence, due to this even the individual employee is under pressure to obtain additional degrees for standing out against their well-educated colleagues. Apparently, there is a general trend towards more education. More education leads to more jobs for teachers even if there are fewer attendance seminars, more webinars and more online workshops for Generation Y. Furthermore, the online education industry of Australia is also increasing with the same pace and has expanded significantly in the last 10 years. The Australian students are now able to acquire knowledge and education at any time and the educational platforms are adapting the technology as according to the needs of the students. The Artificial software development system is helping the scholars to work more on their weaknesses. At the time of the process, the system identifies and discovers where the students has any sort of difficulties in understanding the chapter and send the necessary materials in order to improve their skills as well. This adaptive education system uses the Artificial intelligence basic algorithm which further analyses the data that were received after the educators uploaded the training materials into the systems and the learners do their home works and assignments. There are one or two schools in Australia that have adapted the usage of AI there and it is not only helping the students alone but is also assisting the teachers as well as the schools as they have the ability to detect the prevailing weaknesses and could personalise as well. One of the many examples is Coursera. Coursera notifies the educators when the majority of the learners gave inappropriate answers on different questions. With the same, it is also to note that the development of the AI has also brought in one more benefit for the teachers and the schools. Now, the schools and the teachers in Australia do not need to create education program for the scratch and to search for the necessary materials. As they have started using the system process training, it is helping them in improving the effectiveness of the teachers there. The future situation of Australia in terms of teaching profession is predicted to be more improved with more number of staffs.
Current demographics of doctors in Australia
Australia has undergone several changes since the last 40 years of its existence. One among them is the change in the demographics of different occupations. It is to be noted that despite the huge growth in the healthcare worker’s proportion, the overall proportion of the surgeons and the physicians has significantly dropped in between the year 1960 and 1990. This drop was the result of change in the delivery of the healthcare which had increased the surgeons and the physicians productivity and though strict restrictions on the enrolments in the medical schools which had limited the supply of those professionals. There was also technological factors that had further aided to this drop after the year 2002. The productivity of the physicians in Australia had increased because of the fact that the duties of some of the physicians were then shifted to the other healthcare workers which is why the doctors in Australia stopped making house calls. Researchers suggests that the doctors are far away from being replaced in this era of technological improvements but it is to be noted that this sector too has been affected by the technical possibilities which has indeed lead to staff promotion in Australia (Mokyr, Vickers and Ziebarth 2015).
Table 1: Proportion of the medical workers in the year between 1988 and 1998.
As of 1998, the average number of nursing staffs and doctors employed in Australia were 32.8 while it was increased to 36.9 in 1998. There have been several major improvements in this sector within these years. The software technology based on the artificial intelligence like the Watson Health has enabled various doctors in Australia to diagnose several illness through the process of reconciling the data of the patients with medical knowledge that are been gathered in a cloud (Frey and Osborne 2017). Finally, the demographic change in Australia would also in future lead to increase in jobs opportunities in this area as because of the fact that the Australian population is continuously ageing and the modern medicines is one of the major reasons behind this. By 2040, it would be impossible to imagine hospitals in Australia without robots. Instead of hiring human hand for the tasks like of moving wheel chairs of the patients and their beds, or assist the doctors while performing surgery, the hospitals would make use of robots.
Current demographics of small business owners in Australia
The median Australian small business owners are a bit over fifty years old. According to the researchers, among the small business owners in Australia, majority of them are whites and males. However, this statistics has been improved as in earlier days the proportion of women owing business was much less as compared to the women in recent days. The male participation is also significantly rising. Also, maximum of them are over the age of 50 years, which is quite obvious and consistent as usual. In recent days, it is to mention that the proportion of the well qualified candidates opting for owning and operating small scale business has grown up to a great extent. As according to June 2011, there were about 2,132,412 actively trading businesses in the country which is more than that of June 2010 when the number of small scale business in Australia was 2,124,650. As of the above mentioned figure (fig 7), almost 96% of the total businesses in the country was small scale business and 3.8% were the medium scale and less than one percent were comprised of the large scale businesses (El-Zaemey et al. 2018). Hence, it can be said that the small scale business in Australia is increasing in size with the growing use of technologies. Artificial intelligence has continuously triggered both the trepidation and excitement among the organisations right from the small to medium scale enterprises in Australian region as well as the general population at large. The advent of machines and the modern IT that are powered by the AI have strongly affected the world of business in the modern days. It is helping the employees as well as the leaders and the managers to do familiar tasks and that too; in more effective and efficient ways, which in turn is making them more productive in nature. The operational jobs and the administrative jobs in Australia could be now learned by the software agents or call the robots that are now assisting the business men in prioritising the tasks and managing the routine and day to day interactions with their co-workers. In Australia, the use of technology has been increased significantly as compared to it was ten years ago. Many customers and business are now interacting with the help of AI technologies, virtual assistants and recognition devices like Google Home, Alexa, Siri and Cortana. Hence, it can be said that AI is not a replacement but is a substitute for the human intelligence and is a completely different method of reaching to conclusions. The AI could exceed or complement their own abilities and could also work alongside of the human beings and could also assist them to learn new way of thinking. With such a rapid improvement in the small scale business in Australia, it is predicted that this sector would improve more with the use of Artificial Intelligence technologies and modern equipment in the business procedures.
Artificial intelligence and the new generation robotics have slowly entered into every area of the lives of the people right from the online shopping and television viewing to each and everything. are believed to replace the human work in the coming days. It is a fact that an autonomous computer system would not depend upon the external factors, which means it would be working constantly and reliably as well and that too 24/7, unlike the human workers who needs rest to be productive and effectively work. Hence, the accuracy of the technologies and other modern systems would be greater as compare to the human and they cannot be distracted even by any other external situations or by fatigue (Duckworth and Yeager 2015). Work would be more synchronised and standardised which in turn would result in improvement of the efficiency and a better control of the workplace performance along with more transparency in the organisation. Here, the advantages that the employees would get are that they then will have to do lesser hard work as their work could be performed by the autonomous systems. They would get more free time which they would be able to use in engaging in other creative activities or other individual recreational activities. The artificial intelligence machines and the robots could not only have a supporting favour to the labours but also would play life saving functions for them. For example, the robots that are used in the medical diagnostics that have high accuracy, the integrated camera systems in the workplaces and the assessment of the dangerous or the harmful objects by using the remote control systems would better assist them in working safely in their workplace. It is also to note that, though the researchers and the media are giving an impression that the AI would replace all the human hands with robots in the coming years, there is a more possibility of the current paths, industries and the daily tasks of the job would evolve. However, on the other hand, it is also to mention that with the increase in use of new technologies and robots in the work place, the rate of unemployment in the business society would also be increased. As according to the recently conducted survey, 605 of the people including the leaders and the managers fear that within the coming ten years, the increase in use of robots will decrease the job opportunities for them. In fact, by 2020, about 35 percent of the skills that the workers would need to do their job would be changed. However, for the managers and leaders, it would be quite helpful as because of the fact that they would be able to buy a machine instead of paying the workers every month for the work that could be done accurately, more perfectly and more perfectly than a human hand. It would help them to invest once for getting fruitful result for a longer period of time.
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El-Zaemey, S., Carey, R.N., Darcey, E., Reid, A., Rushton, L., McElvenny, D.M. and Fritschi, L., 2018. Does the Size of a Company Make a Difference in the Prevalence of Exposure to Asthmagens and in the Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment?. Annals of work exposures and health.
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Hager, G.D., Bryant, R., Horvitz, E., Mataric, M. and Honavar, V., 2017. Advances in Artificial Intelligence Require Progress Across all of Computer Science. arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.04352.
Mokyr, J., Vickers, C. and Ziebarth, N.L., 2015. The history of technological anxiety and the future of economic growth: Is this time different?. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 29(3), pp.31-50.
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