Applied Ethics: World Health Organization Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Applied Ethics for World Health Organization.

Answer:

Introduction:

Berney Clark a man of 62 years on 1982 of December became the first person who received permanent artificial heart. At the time of operation, that person was given a key for turning off his compressor any time if he wanted to die. It was the plan of Dr Kolff to observe the human psychology. Clark at the age of 62 may not feel good in living his life under the hardship of World. The person may not be able to take the suffering of operating a body. However, Clark never used the key as long as he was alive. Therefore, it is all about the power and strength of endurance that an individual has within the heart and mind. This very specific study has focused to make on-depth analysis whether suicide is morally wrong or not. Different eminent scholars have provided their own point of view regarding this specific issue. As per the opinion of some eminent scholars, suicide is not the way out for resolving an issue. Moreover, it leave, a major negative impact for the development of society. On the other hand, other specific scholars believe that psychological disorder, extreme level of mental dilemma, effect of pessimism are the expected reasons of committing suicide. If an individual person has to face mental dilemma and psychological disorder, the individual tends to commit suicide. From the perspective of that specific individual committing suicide is morally and ethically correct. However, this very specific study has focused to make in-depth critical analysis whether suicide is morally wrong or not.

Discussion:

World Health Organization recognizes that suicide is the intentional determination to end the life of an individual. After leaving all hope and positivity from life an individual intends to commit suicide. Committing suicide leaves a major impact on society, as this specific method is a form of de-motivation for surviving in the World. Douglas (2015) stated that as per the belief of Roman Catholic Church the life of a human being the property of God. Therefore, human being should never misuse the property of god being impulsive or immature. With the gradual progress of civilization, the rate of suicide is increasing day by day. Different psychiatrists have raised major concern by stating that suicide is not morally correct. Department of health and Ageing reported that around 3000 suicide is occurred in the soil of Australia as of 28th May of 2017. Over the past decade, around 2100 people died in suicidal case each year. The death rate for suicide was 2132 in 2009, down from 2282 recorded in 2008. Deaths from suicide represented 1.4% of all deaths registered in 2009. However, as per the statistical analysis it can be stated that the death rate of human being in suicidal purpose has been raised from 2009 to 2017. Numerous researchers and health practitioners have raised their voice in order to identify the increasing rate of suicidal case.

Mishara and Weisstub (2016) opined that human being has to face three major approaches while leading their life in the society. The approaches include duties to god, duties to society and duties to self. The concept of duties to god indicates that human being is the gift of god. Therefore, being a god’s property the life of an individual is completely dependent on the willingness of god. At the time of birth, the human life is destined when it is going to end. However, this very specific concept strongly differs that suicide is morally correct. The concept of duties to society believes that suicide is wrong because society is losing a personality. Piar (2012) stated that the Utilitarian belief considers that human being should never commit suicide as it leaves a negative impact on the mind of others. On the other hand, one specific group of utilitarianism opines, “A man who retires from life does no harm to society. He only ceases to do good”. Suicide is never permissible. In many case it is observed that numerous personalities commit anti-social activities in the society. Those kinds of persons have no use for the development and betterment of society. Therefore, those persons in mental agony can commit suicide (Durkheim 2013). There is not moral or ethical harm if a useless person commits suicide for making a balance in population within the society. This specific concept has been firmly differed by numerous eminent scholars.

Schramme (2013) opined that an anti-social activist intends to commit suicide only when that individual is repentant for past activities. Otherwise, the person would ever decide to destroy the life. In this situation, the society needs to co-operate this individual and encourage the person so that the person can lead a healthy honest life. Instigating the individual for committing suicide is not the major solution. Ultimately, the society would lose a person who has already transformed nature from a convict to an honest person. As emphasized by Lederer (2013) a particular society is amalgamated with good and bad. Therefore, being a part of society an individual should always focus on rectifying the mistake of a person rather than providing any kind of negative thoughts or instigation. The emergence of revenge suicide has become a significant issue in last five years. Revenge suicide implies that an individual in order to punish a person to give a lesson intends to lose life forever. This kind of initiative is ethical wrong. Escaping the world can never be a way of punishing an individual. In addition, people belonging to different geographical boundaries and attitudes are possessed with different level of psychological backgrounds and attitudes. However, Nikolajeva (2012) opines that the people of society having strong academic background and culture should take the initiative of educating the society not for committing revenge suicide. Australia’s department of health and ageing has made numerous initiatives in educating the illiterate people for saving their lives. As per the opinion of B?hr (2013), committing suicide is a form of psychological dilemma base don which an individual is instigated for ending the life permanently. This psychological dilemma can happen with an educated person as well.

Duties of self evaluates that suicide is a matter of moral autonomy, a matter of free, rational choice, of the individual’s sovereignty over himself or herself. It is a matter of individual rights as emphasized by (Lankford 2013). If an individual personality loses all hopes and desires for enjoying the mundane life that specific individual has every right to take a major decision on life. In this kind of situation, committing suicide can be an option with the help of which the individual can leave the World being extreme level of pessimistic. Sj?strand et al. (2013) stated in an occasion “If morality is chiefly or exclusively about the effects of our actions on others, and suicide is a matter of individual autonomy, suicide itself would not be a moral issue as such”. Savulescu (2014), after evaluating the concept of duties of self, has stated that, suicide the advocacy of autonomy is not morally and ethically correct. Leaving the world being losing hopes and desires is not the solution for resolving issues. Beyleveld (2012) stated that Every human being with the rhythmic progress of civilization should groom them up on how to overcome different hardships and social barrier. Every human being should have that patience to face real situations. People belonging to different geographical backgrounds and attitudes have to face innumerable barriers in order to survive themselves within the society. In addition, a particular business organization is constituted with the people of various cultural backgrounds and attitudes. Therefore, the role of an individual is to cope up among the cultural diversity.

Demuijnck (2015) opined that leaving the organization for the lack of communication or cultural attributes can never be the best option in order to be an efficient professional. Like the same way, an individual should never instigate to leave the World being completely impulsive. The decision of committing suicide is a non-autonomous action as it goes against the moral law and ethics.

Priel (2013) has presented that the attitude of a human being is completely dependent on two major attitudes. A specific group of scholars believes that suicide is nothing but the individuals’ autonomy, psychological beliefs and mental abnormality that instigate a person to end the life span without being hesitated. This specific study it has been observed that numerous eminent scholars have supported the concept of committing suicide if a person is not willing to live in the World. On the other hand, another group of scholar believes that attempting suicide indicates an individual is not autonomous and rational. This specific individual does not have the patience to face reality. As a result, this kind of mental statement has been considered as mental disability and abnormality. Camus in this very context argues that Even if life is ultimately absurd, in not killing ourselves but defiantly resolving to go on, we master the absurd and give significance and value to our lives. However, value of life is undeniable that encourages a person to face any kind of challenges and obstructions from the society.

From the argument of Kebbell and Porter (2012), it can be stated that human being should have a moral value. In order to survive in the soil of Earth every human being has to face innumerable hardships and difficulties for overcoming challenges. From the workplace to education centres, everywhere an individual has to face barriers to succeed their aims and goals. The responsibility of an efficient human being is not to escape the challenges instead of facing it. This specific psychological belief truly leaves a major negative effect in building and developing the society towards new path. Especially new generation gets highly affected from these kinds of activities. Kahn and Lester (2013) pointed out that numerous health non-profit organizations are there such as Australia’s department of health and ageing which primarily aim to circulate motivational approaches and activities for encouraging those people who suffer in psychological dilemmas. Kebbell and Porter (2012) stated that the service providers of this organization primarily aim to give motivational speech to the individuals based on which a person after losing hopes and desires can regain the energy and hope for surviving in this Earth. It has been observed that the initiatives taken on behalf of employees of Australia’s department of health and ageing have become positive. People belonging to different geographical boundaries and attitudes have various psychological backgrounds. Therefore, the service providers intend to show numerous documentary or comedy movies to those persons who are suffering from psychological dilemmas. In this kind of situation, people would get motivates to view their life in a different way. The service providers of Australia’s department of health and ageing have received immense positive impact after applying those initiatives. Therefore, as per the belief of large number of psychologists, psychiatrists as well as research practitioners human life should be given values.

Conclusion:

Different eminent scholars have provided numerous opinions regarding the controversial issue like “Is suicide morally wrong to commit suicide?” As per the opinion of some of the most eminent scholars, committing suicide is an individuals’ right and autonomy. An individual should decide effectively how the person would like to view life. On the other hand, numerous scholars have expressed the opposite point of view. As per the opinion of those eminent scholars, it can be stated that an individual should know how to give moral value of human life. A person should never resolve the issue from life by leaving the Earth. This particular concept is beyond the cultural ethics and moral laws. Therefore, after making an in-depth critical analysis it can be concluded that the life of human being can be saved instead of taking impulsive decision.

Reference List:

B?hr, A., 2013. Between “Self-Murder” and “Suicide”: The Modern Etymology of Self-Killing. Journal of Social History, 46(3), pp.620-632.

Beyleveld, D., 2012. The Principle of Generic Consistency as the Supreme Principle of Human Rights. Human rights review, 13(1), pp.1-18.

Demuijnck, G., 2015. Universal values and virtues in management versus cross-cultural moral relativism: An educational strategy to clear the ground for business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(4), pp.817-835.

Douglas, J.D., 2015. Social meanings of suicide. Princeton University Press.

Durkheim, E., 2013. Professional ethics and civic morals. Routledge.

Kahn, D.L. and Lester, D., 2013. Efforts to decriminalize suicide in Ghana, India and Singapore. Suicidology Online, 4, pp.96-104.

Kebbell, M.R. and Porter, L., 2012. An intelligence assessment framework for identifying individuals at risk of committing acts of violent extremism against the West. Security Journal, 25(3), pp.212-228.

Lankford, A., 2013. A comparative analysis of suicide terrorists and rampage, workplace, and school shooters in the United States from 1990 to 2010. Homicide studies, 17(3), pp.255-274.

Lederer, D., 2013. Sociology's “One Law”: Moral Statistics, Modernity, Religion, and German Nationalism in the Suicide Studies of Adolf Wagner and Alexander von Oettingen. Journal of Social History, 46(3), pp.684-699.

Mishara, B.L. and Weisstub, D.N., 2016. The legal status of suicide: A global review. International journal of law and psychiatry, 44, pp.54-74.

Nikolajeva, M., 2012. Guilt, empathy and the ethical potential of children's literature. Barnboken, 35(1), p.18081.

Piar, D.F., 2012. Morality as a Legitimate Government Interest. Penn St. L. Rev., 117, p.139.

Priel, D., 2013. Reconstructing Fuller’s Argument against Legal Positivism. Canadian Journal of Law & Jurisprudence, 26(2), pp.399-413.

Savulescu, J., 2014. A simple solution to the puzzles of end of life? Voluntary palliated starvation.

Schramme, T., 2013. Rational suicide, assisted suicide, and indirect legal paternalism. International journal of law and psychiatry, 36(5), pp.477-484.

Sj?strand, M., Helgesson, G., Eriksson, S. and Juth, N., 2013. Autonomy-based arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: a critique. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy, 16(2), pp.225-230.

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