The essay depicts a critical analysis on social implications of mobile applications. Social media interaction helps the students to share content across web media and establish collaboration with each other with constant connectivity. Mobile applications are important components of the social strategy (Hillman et al. 2013). The essay will select two journals for the critical analysis and will produce a result to frame whether the authors made appropriate critical analysis for their journals or not. Majorly, the essay will demonstrate that the research questions are valid or significantly stated by the authors or not. In addition to this, the essay will state the methodologies used by the authors for mobile application covers adequate research or not. Lastly, it will detect that the collected data, analysis of data and supportive evidences explained in the journals are ethical or not.
Research questions or problems stated in the journal: Mobile devices can benefit learners in the sphere of education. The research question on social implications of mobile applications has been explored in great detail explaining the integration of mobile computing devices in the area of learning and teaching (Bell, Maeng and Binns 2013). It emphasizes the need for mobile devices in the landscape of higher education and with it presents its set of challenges and opportunities (Jones, Scanlon and Clough 2013). The aim of the research study is to conduct a broader research on the opinions of teachers and students on implementing mobile applications and devices. This study also presents the perceptions and experiences of the students in using mobile computing devices, and the role played by mobile devices in the society.
The first journal implies that, the future of the classroom is fully dependent on the emerging technologies adopted by the mobile applications. Mobile learning is stated as one of the most appropriate learning procedures used in higher education (Rossing, et al. 2012). It also stated that, mobile technologies support the learners and helps the users to keep engage themselves with different critical communicative learning activities. The journal demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of digital wireless devices to increase the learning outcome for the users (Gikas and Grant 2013). The mobile learning helps the student to gain knowledge across the classroom’s wall. On the other hand, the second journal states the purposes of using the mobile computing devices in the teaching learning procedures. It will provide the perception of the students in mobile learning. It also explained the importance of mobile learning and how the social media and web 2.0 tools creates a secure communication.
The survey reported that, ipad helped him to understand the detail of the graphs rather than only imagination. Music students are able to get ear training sitting at home whenever wanted. Immediate response motivates the students to learn more from the internet sources (West 2013). Whereas, in common class rooms at the same time more number of students communicate and share their view and needs with the teachers and sometimes, in case of any query thy feel helpless to ask for the query. However, in mobile learning one can ask for their query and teachers responds in a simple and easy manner (Jones, Scanlon and Clough 2013). Again, a single video can be viewed by a student more than once which is not possible in class rooms.
Though the journal explained the importance of mobile learning but still it shows certain issues such as it does not provided how the learners can gain knowledge from anywhere and anytime whenever needed. Again, on a survey one student stated that ipad not only kept him engage to the imaginary world rather it helps him to visualise what he is exactly earning from the mobile applications (Jones, Scanlon and Clough 2013). However, if any of a student has proficiency in a particular technology he feels that another emerging technology adaptation is not possible for him. The journal did not describe how one student can feel efficient on a particular technology.
Analysis of research to determine whether it adequately covers the relevant existing research literature: The journal is selected because the research performed by the authors adequately covers the research literature. This qualitative research study put emphasis on students from three different universities. For a minimum of two semesters, the teachers of those students were asked to implement mobile phones in the students’ curriculum (Gikas and Grant 2013). These journals are selected as it explained the purpose of mobile learning in coming future for the students. Data were gathered from the interview taken from student focus groups. After analyzing the data, two specific themes were recognized – the advantages of mobile phones in the courses taken by students, and the limitations that come with learning from cell phone.
This particular paper is selected because it has almost covered all the aspects of the students. It is determined that students who regularly follows all the classes are less efficient that those who maintain regular mobile learning (Kim Park and Rho 2013). In mobile based higher education teachers can connect all the students though a media at a time. The primary findings of the study stated that, the teachers should focus on those sections which requires large amount of writing (Rossing, et al. 2012). Investigation showed that, the five major themes relevant to the mobile learning such as access, share and novelty, style of learning and preferences and conveniences over the functionalities all have certain opportunities and limitations at the same time.
These journals are suitable because it showed the positive and negative both parts during the investigation. The available information that can be accessed by the students provides them an opportunity to make complete research on the real world problems (Gikas and Grant 2013). It also showed that, in mobile computing and mobile application utilization group work and collaborative learning gives positive opportunities to the students. Again, sharing of point of views enhances the level of knowledge of the students. The dynamic changes in the environment are possible by adopting different emerging tools which is strictly connected to mobile learning (Hillman et al. 2013). The journal explained that, simple and variety of applications increases the knowledge level of the learners and the technology based design provides positivity among them. Thus it can be said the selection of the paper is appropriate to depict social implication of mobile application. It provides the students an opportunity to connect through a wireless medium.
At the same time certain limitations are also found in these journals it illustrated that in mobile learning process resources are shared by many students no such owner of a particular technology is found but it did not elaborated how to enhance the efficiency of the shared technology that the current one. On the other hand, during real world application if destruction is found then, total system may lead to failure. As in mobile learning the technology will never bother about the capacity of the individuals rather it will keep on moving dynamically but still the journal does not did no explained how much training and development is needed to improve the capacity of every individual. If, any kind of connectivity issue occurred in the system then, how to overcome that the journal did not mentioned. Device is a major challenge in case of mobile learning as if any fault is occurred in the device hen the complete process will be in vain (West 2013).
Analysis of methodologies used in the research: The methodology used in these journals represents detail experiences of the mobile devices users. Process and characterization of a general qualitative study are used, and in order to identify categories and themes transcripts are transparently examined. This research approach was undertaken to represent the experiences as encountered by the participants who were interviewed. This research study was comprehensive in the sense that only smart phones and cell phones were used (Gikas and Grant 2013). They are used because of the characteristics such as small size and portability, users could send messages and make phone calls; users are enabled to download a wider variety of applications, and constant connectivity to the Internet (Ferreira et al. 2013). To determine the purpose of the sample, the study implemented maximum variation strategy with the criterion strategy.
These journals represent different methodologies such as the context and the participants, how much positivity is possible after adopting fostering collaborative learning (Gikas and Grant 2013). It stated that, the mobile learning provides the learners an opportunity to gain knowledge and enable the users to experience the amount of data in an appropriate manner. These particular journals are selected because it provides the readers to understand the usefulness of mobile learning and at the same time the possible advantages associated to it. The students are able to access all the information whenever and from wherever required (Hillman et al. 2013). The journal represents that; students can access data frequently, various ways are available to learn, merging of different contents gained for various resources and immediate and proper communication among between the teachers and the students.
At the same time, certain limitations are also defined during the analytical diagnosis of the journals. It has been found that, in mobile learning one can get quick access from different resources but if any of an information is improper then the learner cannot determine whether the information is correct or not. The journal is unable to provide any tool which can detect the correct information from the learners (Rossing, et al. 2012). The social networking tools enables the learners to interact to each other in a well organized manner but in case of any fault efficient and effective application are not framed.
Analysis of agreement between the research question, the philosophical framework used, and the research methods: The aim of this research is to find out the implications of learning and teaching through mobile computing devices in the field of higher education (Bell, Maeng and Binns 2013). The analysis taken these journals because, mobile devices, mobile applications and social media currently play a major role in student’s learning and have become an integral part of their life (Kukulska-Hulme, 2012). In these journals the limitations and challenges have been explore by mobile computing devices and the student’s perception and experiences by using them.
The journal provides the following assumptions: mobile devices, and its applications can deliver much beyond accessible course materials, both informal and formal mode of learning, and for learners, it is authentic and context-aware (Brown and Mbati 2015). Thus it can be said that the journal selection is appropriate. The researchers explore three themes of the research topic, which are enabling authentic learning while on the move, fostering collaborative learning and engaging learners with constant connectivity (Rossing, et al. 2012).The methodology is based on the same by collecting data through Skype interviews, analyzing them through open coding and finding connections and finally, checking the data findings with the interview transcripts for checking the findings’ worthiness and any mistakes.
Still certain issues are associated with these journals. The questionnaires stated whether the technologies can be adopted by all the users, whether the dynamic changes are helpful for the learners or the technologies are enough to obtain throughout information from different resources present in the internet services. These journals are unable to provide proper solution.
Biases that can detect the methods used in this study or flaws in the logic or methods that undermine the results: The research was undertaken through a number different methodologies and process for every step from a selection of participants to the processing of data findings, and every step has been detailed in the essay. The results are categorized into benefits of mobile devices for learning, quick access to information, communication, different ways of learning, situated learning, challenges from learning with mobile computing devices, classes that had anti-technology instructors, device limitations, and distraction due to the mobile device (Gikas and Grant 2013). To remove discrepancies with data or biasing, the authors focus on different groups. Through there is a recognizable change in the student participants as they recognized the distractions from mobile devices, difficulty in typing on small keyboards on a mobile screen, and fear of technology not working properly still there are enough advantages presents.
Ethical aspects: From the perspective of ethical concern, these journals cover all the segments. These journals are selected as it focuses on the current trend of learning and teaching through mobile devices and the integration of social media with downloaded applications. The goal of the research is share their point of view that mobile devices have much possibilities and significance in the sphere of higher education (Rossing et al. 2012). Before the research, the researchers have notified the instructors to incorporate mobile devices into the curriculum for two semesters and then students were asked to participate. Those who participated in the survey don the task willingly because they felt they had an impact of using mobile devices in their learning methods. The student participants were not harmed in any way. Instead, they shared their experiences willingly with other through an independent platform, and also confessed the issues and challenges they faced (Bryman 2015).
Even though the aim is to prove a point, they only came to the conclusion after the data from the findings backed it up, and also associated them with the stories and experiences the participants shared. Students selected from three universities which are medium to large public and private institutions (Hamilton 2014). The journal took references on methodologies from earlier research studies of authors and applied them for data collection, open coding and then working with them to find common links. The research study represents different parts of methodology, findings, and implications (Saunders, Kitzinger and Kitzinger 2015).
From the ethical perspectives it has been determined that, the journals are ethically supportive and no such arguments are occurred during the critical analysis.
Research finding supported by the evidence: The research findings are almost supported by the evidences but still challenges are presents in the journals.
From the overall discussion it can be concluded that the essay represents all the aspects of social implication of mobile application especially in case of mobile learning for the students. During critical analysis it has been found that the journals have covered all the aspects of the learners but still certain limitations are defined. In order to check for trustworthiness and rigor, the interviews are cross –checked with transcripts to ensured that their research study follows a good agreement between research question, philosophical framework, and methodologies. There were no biasing or any flaws present throughout the research as the researchers verified the data findings through many structures and sub-structures. The journal does not provide the ways in which the issues can be mitigated. From the complete overview of the diagnosis it determines that, particularly for the review the journal selection is appropriate. These journals gave enough information but still certain limitations are detected those are not described by the authors.
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