Accounting And Finance: Wide-Range Of Approaches Essay


Describe about the Accounting and Finance for Wide-Range of Approaches.



There are conflicting perspectives present on adult learning as well as separate it from early childhood developmental practices and wide-range of approaches to learning. According to Taylor and Laros (2014), most of the authors believe that all styles of learning are applicable to early childhood and adult learning in relation with healthy learning environment. (Knowles, Holton and Swanson (2014) suggest that this literature review section deals with importance of integrating adult learning principles in designing as well as implementing writing training workshops. In this particular assignment, it is looked at the recent and relevant research on adult learning as well as training and technical communication. There was summary of findings present as well as assumptions underlying adult learning and related recommendations for effective course design. In the conclusion, it is mentioned that adults learn best in hands-on as well as applied situations. As rightly said by Simonson et al. (2014), successful workplace training designs ways for emphasize by extreme level of motivation.

“Problem Statement: Adult Needs are rarely addressed in training”

Scott (2016) argued that cause of unsuccessful outcomes takes place for workplace training classes and writing classes. On the contrary, the failure takes principles of adult learning into account. Mostly, needs of adult learners are not completely addressed and learners fails in applying concepts from training lessons on-the-job tasks.

In training participants, it fails in applying learned concepts and attributed such as:

  • Poor Teaching

In case of adult learning needs, learning styles are completely integrated towards designing of training curricula like technical workshops, scientific writing workshops as well as inappropriate delivery methods for attainment of desired outcomes. Ross-Gordon and Murray-Johnson (2015) suggested that adult learning means four broad principal stages such as concrete experiences, active experimentation as well as reflective observation and abstract conceptualization. Therefore, it mainly relies upon traditional classroom approaches for rendering lecturing information focusing on rules and formulas. On the other hand, training courses should meet the needs of the adults by rendering sufficient concrete examples and allocated time especially for active experimentation. Teaching approaches majorly reflects upon the actual workplace situations as well as on-the-job writing tasks.

  • Lack of Aptitude

Reece and Walker (2016) suggest that participants fail in applying training course concepts as they lacks necessary skills. It requires basic up-front skills assessment such as collection of writing samples as well as analyzing prior to training course. On the contrary, trainers mostly lack actual sense of participant’s skills level and getting familiar with relevant concepts as well as strategies. Addition to that, writing courses fails in including time for in-class application of concepts for developing those concepts.

  • Lack of Motivation

According to Park, Robinson and Bates (2016), there is extreme lack of motivation present in adult learners when they fail in viewing connection between presentation of concepts in training and on-the-job tasks at the same time. On the other hand, most of the participants shows unwillingness in engaging in learning and lacks direct application to their real-life scenarios. In case of writing courses, it fails in situating concepts from actual context of work. It fails in encouraging the professionals who want to change with the current writing strategies in the upcoming future.

  • Cost of changes practices

As suggested by Ozuah (2016), there are two reasons for why training programs failing in achieving the desired outcomes. Training concepts mostly contradicts existing habits as well as practices for applications. These outcomes involve participants who lack proper understanding of organizational need in taking new approach. It is the belief involving proposed change that violates core values of diverse group. This is mainly for professionals who are not experienced in tacking the difficulty in an organization. On the other hand, if the training courses fails in convincing the changed existing writing practices, then it will result in improved process from where personally it can benefits largely.


As rightly said by Knowles, Holton and Swanson (2014), “Andragogy” is the art as well as science of helping adults in learning. Knowles is the father of Andragogy and designed five factors discussing adult learning.

According to Merriam and Bierema (2013), there are “five assumptions” of “Andragogy” that mainly describes adult learner as a person:

Has an independent self-concept as well as direct his or her own learning activities

Has necessary learning needs in relation with changing social roles

Is highly motivated for learning by internal in relation with external factors

Has accumulated enough reservoir of life experiences from rich resources of own learning

Shows interest in immediate application of own knowledge and problem-centered at the same time

Knowles used the above principles for proposing program in designing as well as implementation of adult learning. He mainly acknowledges principles mainly outlining adult education .The focus of the theory involves development of Andragogy.

Some of the key philosophy of Adult Learning and their implications for preparation design are as follows

“Adult Learning Principle”

“Implication for Training Design”

Hsu, Hamilton and Wang (2014) suggested that it is viewed that Adults mainly brings real-life experience as well as knowledge to the learning environment. It involves work-related family as well as community circumstances and events. They learn things best when relates new knowledge as well as information from previously learned knowledge, experiences and information.

It is advisable to provide opportunities for learners in reflecting upon as well as sharing their existing knowledge and experience

It is recommended in creating learning activities involving usage of past experience and knowledge

As per Merriam and MacKeracher (2013), it is essential to ask the learners for identifying the similarities and dissimilarities of what they learn and what they already know and understand

Adults mostly like and prefer self-directed as well as autonomous learning

Designing training after understanding the needs and goals of adult participants

Asking participants what they need to learn

Providing adult learner action-planning tools as well as templates that will help in developing self-directed efforts and facilitating learning activities

Providing wide-range of opportunities for adult learners in directing through guided inquiry as well as self-facilitated small-group discussions

Adults mostly have self-pride as well as desire respect at the same time

Learning involves high risk as well as possibility of failure, designing training for minimizing learners risk and embarrassment

Creation of flexible training programs

Adults shows interest in learning from wide-variety of factors such a personal aspirations, external imposed expectations as well as internal desire or interest for providing service to others

It is recommended in making strong connection between learning content and long-term objectives in work and life

“Learning Theories related to Adult Learning”

“Action Learning”

Hsu, Hamilton and Wang (2014) states, “Action Learning” is one of the most common used terms in relation with adult learning in related business settings. It aims at holding similarities in education community in a variety of forms of replication used in case of organization development. This is one of the approaches for working and developing phases in working for real projects for future analysis purpose. This is one of the approaches of adult learning for processing used in forming groups. It is the balanced as well as diverse groups enhancing learning process in bringing significant contributions for learning community. In action knowledge, participant’s employment in small groups especially on genuine scheme or problem as well as learning from that activity. Kessels (2015), Researchers mainly gather information from Service Company and undergo training sessions for helping in increasing in data acquisition numbers. Most of the small groups forming and learning coach aims at assisting brainstorming and development of new techniques from potential industry sources. Techniques are mostly developed from groups test and refining them at the same time It was agreed by Kaufman (2015) that, it requires setting of improved data gathering techniques as well as understanding of the methods to use it as far as possible.

Pros of Action Learning

  • Action Learning means working in small groups by solving real world problems
  • According to Hsu, Hamilton and Wang (2014), Action Learning means diverse group dynamics involving members with expert knowledge allowing members for significant contribution.
  • On the contrary, Group members mostly get benefits from teach coaches who acts as facilitators as well as organizers and motivators at the same time.

Cons of Action Learning

  • Action learning faces various challenges imposed from group dynamics
  • Action learning faces difficulty in ensuring consistency in and across groups as well as maintaining sessions in case of learning program
  • It leads to difficulty in balancing accomplishing work with learning from specified work

Experimental Learning

As opined by Jarvis (2016), Experimental Learning is a cyclical process in setting goals, experimenting as well as thinking planning and making final decisions. It is one of the learning theories for operating on the premise for learning best from their prior experiences. On the contrary, this theory builds upon experience and is holistic learning approach. This holistic knowledge approach means the beginner in utilizing his or her experiences as well as learning strengths in the process for constructing knowledge (Hsu, Hamilton and Wang 2014).

Pros of Experimental Learning

Experimental learning takes place with the help of direct involvement as well as reflection
Experimental learning brings out own life experiences depending upon the learning situation
Experimental learning aspects depends upon increased motivation as well as material retention

Cons of Experimental Learning

In case of experimental adult learning, lot of time and resources are required for student as well as instructor
Hsu, Hamilton and Wang (2014) suggest Learners requires in bringing out differing cultural experiences and related perspectives of learning experiences.
This particular theory fails in understanding as well as explaining changes and new experiences at the same time

“Project-based learning”

In this type of knowledge, students mainly work in groups for solving the demanding problems that are mostly genuine in nature and often interdisciplinary at the same time. Learners mostly decide upon how to approach a particular problem as well as pursuing of activities (Hsu, Hamilton and Wang 2014). This is mainly comparable with project-based learning strategies such as learning by design. Learners aim at gathering wide-variety of information from potential sources as well as deriving knowledge from it. On the other hand, the main role of the teacher is to guide as well as advice in comparison with managing student work.

Pros of Project-based learning

  • Project-based learning enables learner in giving chance to work on certain real-life scenarios on large scale. This involves management training especially in restructuring corporations.
  • This type of learning allows cooperative learning situations building teamwork as well as collaboration skills in most of the adult learning situations (Hsu, Hamilton and Wang 2014).

Cons of Project-based learning

Project-based learning cannot be always considered as best learning method as dealing in wide-range of cultures as well as backgrounds. This is because analytic methods vary largely from one society to other (Taylor and Laros 2014).

“Self-Directed Learning”

Self-Directed Learning is the informal as well as incidental learning and considers as heart of adult teaching. It is mostly learner-centered center as well as lessons can be learned from real-life experiences (Hanlin 2015). On the other hand, This is an informal type of learning method. It is the process whereby individuals takes required accountability for their own type of knowledge process by personal education needs, implementing strategies as well as identification of resources and evaluating the outcomes.

“Pros of Self-Directed Learning”

Self-Directed Learning integrated with daily routines
Self-Directed Learning triggered by certain internal as well as external motivation
It is an inductive process concerning reflection as well as action
This type of learning links with learning to others

Cons of Self-Directed Learning

In this type of learning, learners are mostly self-directed depending upon the situation. They will fail to act for varied situations personally
Adults do not prefer self-directed learning options. Adults practicing self-directed learning engage mostly for formal educational experiences like teacher-directed courses.
Self-Directed Learning is mostly unstructured as learning gets easily distracted by own needs, values as well as assumptions and misperceptions
According to research, adults fails in engaging in self-directed learning as it lacks independence, resources and confidence at the same time
There is less research conducted especially on self-directed learning

“Ways to stimulate Adult learner”

“Introduction of learning technology” as well as altering agency increases the importance of grown person knowledge techniques. It leads to the problems associated in motivating the adult learners (Gibson 2016). Adults mostly have lot of things on their minds. Some of the tips for motivating adult’s learners are as follows:

Creation of useful as well as relevant learning experiences based upon age group and interests of adult learners- It mainly emphasize upon practical knowledge as well as designing immediate relevancy (Collins 2013). Learning materials puts into practice for future analysis purpose. On the contrary, Adult learners appreciate practical knowledge in comparison with facts as well as theories.

Building community as well as integration of social media- Social media is one of the powerful tools involving collaboration as well as commenting and sharing. It can facilitate group for discussions in communities (Knowles, Holton and Swanson 2014).

Challenging through games

Accommodating individual interests as well as career goals

Stimulating learners

Learning through mistakes

Adult Learning Techniques

It is important to understand the fact that adult-learning techniques are mostly learner-centric demonstrating high-tech. There are various adult learn techniques focusing mainly on the adult knowledge strategy and procedure for attractive adult learner from their past learning experiences (Brousseau 2015).

Adult Learning Principles

Principle of Active Learning- One of the adult learning principles include active participation such as through discussion, feedback as well as activities for creating more learning and passive listening or reading (Brookfield 2013). On the contrary, Presenter should find ways in reducing the amount of content covered as well as allowed participants in discussing the content with each other.
Principles of Problem-centric- This principle means that adults come for seeking guidance and expecting to get their problems solved. They are majorly problem-centric in comparison with content-oriented by the presenter (Brockett 2014).
Principles of Previous Experience- This particular principle involves new information in linking with previous knowledge as well as experience (Knowles, Holton and Swanson 2014).
Principles of Relevance- If particular information are presented and not relevant from the viewpoint of listener, it will fail in gaining attention in any form. If concepts are complicated then listeners will lose attention at the same time (Bradley, Rachal and Harper 2013).
Principle of Emotional Connection- It is necessary to link new information from previous knowledge as well as experience. It mainly allows participants for discussing on new information connection for future analysis purpose. Fear is not a good motivator for learning and causes brain in reacting with flight syndrome. Fear is one of the factors that hamper real learning process (Knowles, Holton and Swanson 2014). On the contrary, Speaker should brief the adult participants relating emotional stories or experiences for reflecting and learning from their feelings.
Principle of Self-Learning- It is one of the principles of adult learning whereby adult learners should have some of the strong beliefs on the subject-learned. This particular belief enhances their learning as well as participating in specific activity and content belief in teaching (Barkley, Cross-and Major 2014).
Principle of Alignment- Adult mostly expects that presenter content as well as learning outcomes for aligning together in synchronized way (Taylor and Laros 2014). If particular learning outcomes fail in matching the content, then learner feels disconnected and future learning is hampered.
Principle of Fun- Presenter should make learning as a fun activity and facilitate learning filled with laughter (Anderson 2016).


At the end of the study, it is important to understand the fact regarding multitude of theories in relation with adult learning. Each of the theory contains independent factors depending upon varied situation by the beginner. It depends upon investigate especially by authors. Theory is explained above with relevant current theories in adult learning. Adults show interest in learning new things depending upon the status and roles in and within organization. Trainers should enroll both senior as well as junior-level professionals especially in training courses in encouraging interaction at the same time. It requires demonstrating specific values involving training to senior members in workplace training. It is necessary to measuring as well as assessing junior-level progress with the help of training. It is important to ensure innovative ways for training content in alignment with organizational responsibilities. . It is necessary in incorporating enough time especially for perform at the preparation workshop. Adults need strengthening in the learning procedure for encouraging correct modes of performance. It is advisable to the trainers in incorporating reinforcement early especially in the training process. It relies upon strengthening on usual basis. It requires encouraging new skill development as well as sustains preferred practices.


It is recommended that trainers should investigate on writing problems as presented in the organization just before the training sessions. It is because adults learn best if the present topic refers immediate value. It is necessary to clearly defining the objectives and explains on the specific writing tasks. It requires discussing as well as using examples from participants own writing. Adults approach learning considered as problem-solving process. It mainly aims at focusing on specific workplace-related problems. It requires encouraging participants in formulating own questions as well as problems. Teaching the writing process is necessary linking with real-life project context. It should involve in-class writing tasks for the potential participants in solving complex work issues. It is recommended in focusing mainly on definable as well as workplace competencies. Adults mostly rely upon reflection process in relation with learning facilitation in the most appropriate way. It provides participants with common vocabulary in relation with conceptualizing document development as well as management evaluation at the same time. It requires asking participants for evaluating their own writing. It measures training process as well as effectiveness at specified interval of time. Incorporating participants as well as lessons, assessment involves at usual intervals from training sessions. Adults require playing a dynamic role especially in their culture process. It requires learning directly from the integrated participant goals. Incorporation of problem-based approach involves learning from simulations as well as participant presentations and case studies. It is recommended to the trainer for including attributes such as planning, drafting as well as revision activities in class. Adults requires in retaining information especially from training classes. It ensures that each participant should have clear understanding regarding the course content as far as possible.

Reference List

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