About study Essay

The study aims to explore and understand the clinical attitude among clinical psychologists. The clinical attitude is the way of thinking and the attitude that the clinician utilises when working with a client, for their client’s welfare, in the therapeutic process. The clinical attitude among clinical psychologist is compared with years of clinical experience, being 1-2 years; 3-4 years; and 5-6 years, to check if there is any difference among them.

An article by D.G. Kirch on Building a framework for clinician well-being and resilience, where he stated the alarming rise in burnout, depression and suicide among health care professional for which in America had started the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) Action Collaborative on clinical wellbeing and resilience in 2017, to curb these issues (Kirch, 2017).

In a research study the attitudes of psychology students to depression and its treatment was studied and its Implications for clinical practice was focused. The sample of the study was undergraduate students from psychology department. A self-report questionnaire was used for data collection and it was analysed using repeated measure ANOVA. The study showed that as the students from 2nd year had more positive attitude than when they were in 1st year though thereafter not much improvement was seen in the attitude towards depression. The clinical implications cited were that the mental health professionals- educators should reflect on their own beliefs and attitudes towards depression, as they may pass the attitude to their students. The limitation of the study was that it the study was conducted on one psychology department, cross-sectional design leads to unmeasured confounding variables effects (Economou, et.al. 2017).

Attitudes of clinical psychologists towards clients with personality disorders a research, the study was conducted on clinical psychologist to assess their attitude towards clients with personality disorders. The special focus of the study was to investigate the relationship between recency of specialist training and clinician’s attitude, as well as percentage of personality disorder clients on clinician’s caseload. The sample was recruited through advertisements through professional bodies. The data was analysed through bivariate correlations and hierarchical regression. The results showed that both recency of specialist training and percentage of client accounted for the positive attitude, also higher caseload with personality disorder was an important indicator of positive attitude. The implication of the study showed that the recent specialist training was valuable in improving clinician’s attitude towards personality disorder clients (Egan, Haley, & Rees, 2014).

In the book authored by Donald Nicholas, understanding clinical psychology, he states that the field of clinical psychology is regulated by code of ethics in most of the countries. These codes have higher standards when compared to the law which define the licensing requirements, it is designed to guide responsible behaviour, the protection of the clients and in whole the improvement of the individual group and society. He mentions that the APA code is based on five principles which are beneficence and non- maleficence, fidelity and responsibility, integrity, justice and respect for people’s rights and dignity. Along with the detailed elements including issues of resolving ethical issues competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising, record keeping, fees training, research, publication, assessment and therapy (Nicholas, 2013, pp. 19-20).

In a research article that studied the therapist experience and knowledge acquisition in internet-delivered CBT for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial which indicated that the therapist experience when compared between experienced and inexperienced therapist, they did not result in different outcomes, though it was indicated that experienced therapist needed less time to support and guide the client as they logged in less frequently when giving guided internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) (Andersson, Carlbring, and Furmark, 2012).

The research by Khan and others attempted to find the determinants of job satisfaction on the employees performance among medical institutes of Pakistan, it was seen that various factors affected the above mentioned which included various aspects from pay to the nature of the work. The research indicated that the job satisfaction of the individual has positive impact on the employee performance. (Khan et al., 2011)

In an article on ethics in the practice of clinical psychology where Rathna Isaac gives an overview of the ethical issues which are relevant in clinical psychology, describes the ethical codes of the American Psychological Association which includes general principles, on psychological assessments, on education and training and psychological interventions (Issac, 2009).

Therapist attitudes and patient outcomes, Therapist attitudes influence change during treatment a research study. The study uses the therapist attitude scale developed by Sandell and others in 2004, which was related to symptoms checklist-90, in two groups of patients with one ongoing psychoanalytic treatment and other post treatment. Correlational analysis was done and symptom distress had significant correlation to therapist attitude of kindness and insight as curative factors and supportiveness as therapeutic style, and their views on the nature of psychotherapy a form of artistry. Though the correlation on in treatment was zero or insignificant. The patterns of relations indicated that therapist attitude functions as a moderators rather than a mediator. (Sandell, et. al., 2007).

In the article, professional competence of the psychologist is emphasised which is one of the ethical standards which is part of clinical attitude. The article “what makes a competent psychologist?” where he talks about the two approaches that have been proposed for professional competence in the psychological profession with European standards in mind. Where one focuses on the roles and functions one as psychologist should be able to perform, the other was the educational curricula that should be followed by the psychologist. Though he also states that both approaches are insufficient for setting professional standards. Then he talks of a comprehensive model of occupational competence which includes the factors involved in both the approaches. He also stated how this model can be utilised to define competence profiles along with helping in developing and maintaining professional competency. The article included student selection, academic curriculum design, initial professional training, continued professional training, institutional and individual accreditation, and quality assurance as well (Roe, 2006).

In a research article that studied the effect of therapist experience on psychotherapy outcomes, the therapist was matched a client. The study indicated that therapist with prior experience with clients was able to use the knowledge to enhance the future outcomes, though it was stated that it was only beneficial to have experience if the clients were clinically and demographically similar to the prior experiences and they entered in the treatment within short period of the prior experience with the client (Leon, Martinovich, Lutz & Lyons, 2005).

In a review research which aimed review the current evidence for effectiveness of stress management among psychiatric professionals and it was stated that psychiatric professions have high level of stress, and the research assessed effectiveness of stress management interventions which they utilized which included both personal level and work related stress (Fothergill, Edwards, & Burnard, 2004).

In the research article on the relationship between attitudes and behaviour using meta-analysis of 88 attitude-behaviour studies that reveals that attitudes significantly and substantially predict future behaviour. Relatively large and significant moderating effects were found for the attitudinal variables of attitude certainty, stability, accessibility, affective-cognitive consistency, and direct experience. A smaller but significant moderating effect was found for self-monitoring. Methodological factors associated with high attitude-behaviour correlations included self-report measures of behaviour, the use of nonstudents as subjects, and corresponding levels of specificity in the attitude and behaviour measures. The practical magnitude of attitude-behaviour correlations is considered, as are the future directions of attitude-behaviour research. (Kraus, 1995)

Motivations and Attitudes of Clinical Psychologists regarding treatment of the elderly a research study, the study aimed to explore the motivation for work with elderly among students and practitioners in clinical psychology. The data was analysed using correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis. The attitude towards psychotherapy and past professional experience are indicated as the two important indicators of motivations towards the elderly. The result indicated that there was a lower motivation to treat elderly than any other age group. Clinical implication in regard to Israeli population is that they still need to be educated and convinced that working with the elderly can be professionally meaningful and personally fulfilling (Shmotkin, Eyal, & Lomranz, 1992).

In the article on what is clinical Psychology, by David Shawkow in, he defined clinical psychology by integrating correlational psychology and experimental psychology. He emphasised on the importance of training in scientist professional model, where self-evaluation happens under guidance. The two important features he stated in the article where about knowledge of the clinical psychologist in the field of study or practice, and the attitude, majorly emphasizing on humility which develops through the years of practice in the field. As concluding remarks he stated the importance of integration of theory and practicum, when giving training to clinical psychologist (Shawkow, 1976).

A research by studied the attitude of personnel of two large mental hospitals about mental illness, it included personnel who ranged from being office and kitchen help to psychiatrist who filled out a specifically devised attitude scale It was found that there was clear cut difference in attitude among the personnel (Cohen & Struening, 1962).

2.2 Research gap

The researches on clinical attitude were found to be limited, as no research studies were assessable on clinical attitude among clinical psychologist. The theoretical concept of clinical attitude needs to have research basis, which is addressed in the present study.

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