About literature Essay

Numerous climate change fiction works have been published, yet some claims that there is few of them due to the fact that these novels were published under different genres or sub-genres such as science fiction By definition, climate fiction is concerned with the influence and consequences of anthropogenic global warming. Following the concept of Anthropocene, I intend to discuss some of the impacts of climate change on human life as in a previous review by she states that This essay will explore the theme of Climate migration for human species and Fauna in relation to the setting as well as the representation of gender politics. In addition to the notion of care and its various models in the light of definition taking into account how far these models are effective in as a primary text. This analysis will also include other secondary novels such as In Parable of the Sower, Octavia Butler explores one of the prominent themes in climate change narratives which is migration. The term In accordance with this definition, the characters in Parable of the Sower are not directly by the ecological crisis or global warming but mainly in an indirect way. In the novel, we don’t know exactly what kind of calamity took place that has caused this chaos in futuristic California between the years of 2024 , where the protagonist, Lauren Olamina, lives in a neighborhood called Robledo surrounded by walls to protect them from the dangers of outsiders. Right after this unknown apocalyptic event which leads to social disorder, unemployment, and the augmentation of prices as indicated, even the water becomes a luxury. This is one of the indirect effects of climate change on the human race. However, the protagonist Lauren didn’t voluntarily decide to move out of her neighborhood because of the living conditions but mostly she finds herself in an involuntary and compulsory migration following the destruction of Robledo community right after being attacked by the Unexpectedly, she finds herself shoved into this strange cruel outer world. Her migrational journey starts on the ‘Freeway’, an unfamiliar setting to her as she is used to domestic life inside gated neighborhood surrounded by walls and, in chapter 15 she says Lauren describes the location as an archaic one from the previous millennium, which widens the sense of displacement and detachment in her. In fact, through this scene of, the writer tries to familiarize the futuristic location by comparing it to one from the ‘twentieth century’, along with portraying this sensation of mass migrants joining the same road towards a remote destination and Lauren becoming part of this flow in her hope of survival. Ironically, she uses old maps and radio as her guide to the north, an artifact from a primeval civilization. In other words, even though it’s the year 2024 people are still going through the same struggles and use the same tools in their migration.

Much in the same way, The Road’s story revolves around a migrational journey of a father and son to flee the impacts of severe change in climate which is the social chaos and extreme cold weather for example Again, in this novel too, we come across a ‘forced’ type of In his attempt to protect his son in this deserted post-apocalyptic setting, the man takes the risk to migrate south through a road filled with dangers. The road is both the novel’s title and main setting, in fact, it is an important symbol not only as a common location for all travelers setting but also as a source of terror. Throughout the whole trip, the man and the son are constantly alternating between two places ‘on the road’ and ‘off the road’. The ‘road’ is the only choice which the man has to take in order to find a warmer and safe place to protect his son from this barbaric world as mentioned in section 1 “He knew only that the child was his warrant The man dedication and hope for continuation of the human race is embodied through the sentence The fire here is a metaphor for human desire and moving force that keeps them alive.

Another prominent example of climate change impacting migration pattern is in Flight Behavior. Not only homo-sapiens are affected, but also the animals are going through this ‘forced’ migration. Kingsolver focuses on the example of monarchs that ended up migrating north -Tennessee- far from their usual behavior, which might cause the species’ extinction attributed to unstable climate as referred in Migration and climate changed setting are interconnected as illustrated in all fictional works above, the second is a key driver to human and other species mobility. In climate change fiction, A second remarkable theme in climate-changed novels is the representation of gender politics in Parable of the Sower and The Stone Gods. Gender is a social and cultural constructed concept, as noted by so discussing gender inequalities might be not applicable, however, Butler has kept the same traditional roles Lauren has grew up in patriarchal society her father decides everything at home, patriarchal supremacy, and even during a time of chaos women are raped. As a matter of fact, Butler’s depiction of gender inequality is in accordance with ecofeminist approach which asserts that A brief example is when Lauren felt the need to disguise as a man in order not to be a ‘prey’ to others as a mechanism of survival. Even in futuristic setting the masculine dominance still present case in point the Mosses family and Zahra is one of the wives bought by a rich old man as disclosed in the novel This passage brings to the reader mind some familiar images from past and even present polygamous communities or societies, although in one moment in the book Butler tries to break from this stereotype when hinting to Lauren’s gender uncertainty Thus, we can say that the author has achieved some type of gender-fluidity via this statement.

In The Stone Gods, even though women are liberated from their traditional roles as housewives, there still discrimination based on age and body image. Nevertheless, Winterson challenges the notion of gender roles by creating ones, practically with the two leading characters Billie/Billy and Spike/Spikkers. Most of the time we are facing a sort of genderless characters as Winterson swings between different gender identities and sexes. In part 1 and 4, Billie is lesbian and Spike and in part 2 Billy and Spikkers both portrayed as men in alternative reality. Consequently, the novel could be seen as a perfect representation of gender equality and fluidity.

A final significant theme in Parable of the Sower, The Road, and The Stone Gods is the depiction of care in post-apocalyptic novels. In accordance with Adeline johns-Putra’s article, entitled the focus will be on the care for humans and its reverse in the three novels. The majority of characters are obsessed by the idea of surviving in time of ecological crisis as it seems too late to care for ‘non-human’ environment; the central issue addressed here is the relationship between the human species.

The first model of care is sharing and collectiveness in Parable of the Sower namely through two ideas. First one is hyperempathy. Lauren Olamina has hypermathy syndrome which makes her Second one is Earthseed philosophy. The protagonist, Lauren produced her own philosophy and belief apart from her father and later on the freeway she tries to include others and turn it into ‘Earthseed community’. Lauren believes and hopes for a better future through planning, she explains Earthseed as . Her ideology stands for caring about the future and humanity by helping one another as group hand in hand, therefore she shares knowledge, food, and protection with the people around her; indeed, Lauren voices this on multiple occasions case in point by end of chapter 20 she says: Hence, Lauren cares for humankind, compassionates about children and helping, also promotes Earthseed as a solution to the crisis. Her care for others made her decide to settle north and start a farm which proves its effectiveness, in other words, Earthseed could be seen as an alternative project to destruction and resurrection.

The second model of care is parenthood in The Road. Despite the infernal state of the world, there is an exquisite bond between the man and the boy. In the novel, we run across this fatherly deep affection for his son notably when he states: We sense the man’s love to his son in small gestures like offering him coca cola or preparing a cocoa drink. This example demonstrates how much the son means to him, the boy symbolizes the fire that keeps him going in this ugly world additionally to being the hope for the future in time when no one Hence, the boy is being ‘cared’ for and the same way the boy keeps shielding behind and looking for some reassurance by stating things over and over, for instance, their conversation in section The author breaks the traditional image of the mother being the source of affection and care to the child by allowing the father to be in charge of protecting him, this doesn’t mean that the mother is depicted as an ‘uncaring’ one, on the contrary she sees salvation in ending their life: This type of motherly love is another side of care. On the other hand, McCarthy uncovers the most selfish horrifying face of humans through homicide and cannibalism outstandingly on chapter This scene shows the extreme ugly face of humankind in a post-apocalyptic environment. At this point, we might be speaking of death of the human instead of nonhuman landscape.

The third model of care is of lovers in The Stone Gods. This time the person cared for and uncared for simultaneously is Billie. Jeanette Winterson breaks the rule this time, by presenting Spike as the caring one, not a human but a Robosapien. The protagonist has found love through a robot, something never felt from her mother. Billie was abandoned as a baby, so she never had the chance to experience the motherly love and care. Ironically, found this sense of care with Spike the robot, as simple example in part 1 of the novel when Spike asks Billie about the meaning In this context, it is worthwhile to consider love as a way of caring for others. This love has provided some kind of emotional and psychological comfort for Billie, what Luna Dolezal describes a has given Billie some kind of peaceful ending.

To summarize, in the fours works discussed above addresses the concept of climate migration, gender politics, and the ethics of care in climate changed fiction. The idea of migration is seen in a new light due to indirect global warming effects. In Parable of the Sower, The Road, and Flight Behavior all characters apart from the sense of displacement and involuntary migration, the setting is a core element in their journey, where things get harder for them and almost no hope for sustainable living conditions in a doomsday scenario. Not only domestic human life disturbed but also other species affected for instance the monarch butterflies risk extinction by relocating to an ill-suited climate. Furthermore, we have the theme of gender in Parable of the Sower and The Stone Gods, where climate change indirectly impacts women’s lives negatively causing gender inequality as addressed by ecofeminist like Greta Gaard. Despite that Butler and Winterson succeeded in overcoming these gender ties and establishing some gender-neutrality or inclusivity. Lastly, examining the concept of care for humankind with its different types from collectiveness, to parenthood and finally lovers. As demonstrated that care is important as a way for lessening climate anxieties and hope for rebuilding the future.

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