This paper will expand on the meaning of child abuse, different forms of child abuse and the rate among African American abuse vs. any other nationality in this society. I have found some interesting details. How we interpret child abuse differentiates. This paper is broken down into subheadings including: Introduction, data on physical abuse results on emotional abuse and conclusion. The paper explores five scholarly articles that explains the data that is found. The articles, yet, vary in their definitions and uses of Child Abuse. Research has been hindered by challenges including unwinding the facts behind ethnicity and culture. Recent literature reviews suggest that, of the three traditionally identified and studied areas of child maltreatment (CSA, physical abuse, and neglect), CSA has received the most research attention (Chaffin, this (Talk about the results of data & hypothesis)
The definition of abuse becomes complicated when the limit between good and abuse, socio-cultural context and the duration of the abuse comes in to play. Usually, the types of abuse are interweaving and there is a determinism relationship between them. There are practices in other countries where as spanking the child’s bottom or making them cry is not considered any type of abuse. Sometimes a parent might lose it for a second and hit the child or verbally abuse that child. To continue those types of behaviors towards that child would be considered as maltreatment in the United States. Abuse varies in different cultures and nationality. Data has been collected in the system for child abuse in For example, Rodriguez-Srednicki and Twaite reports this in article, “The most recent available data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) indicate that during calendar year 2001 approximately three million reports were made to state child protective services agencies alleging that one or more children were being abused or neglected.” Srednicki and Twaite states that approximately 903,000 children were reported by CPS agencies to have been maltreated during the year of 2001.
Physical Abuse Data
Bruises, burns, fractures, cuts, punctures, or even organ damage can all be results of physical abuse. According to NCANDS data that Elliot and Urquiza (2006) reviewed claimed that 15.3% of African Americans and Asian American children rates were higher for physical abuse compared to Non-Latino Whites. For American-Indian and Pacific-Islander children only accounted for 9.7% and 8.6% of reports. Elliot (2006) reports that many studies have identified discrepancies in the way parents view and employ disciplinary strategies. Most physical abuse happens in high risk families. An example would be the children that are living in poverty are exposed more to an abusive parent or guardian (as cited in Lazenbatt et al., 2013).
Sexual abuse data. In the United States sexual abuse is a crime. Child sexual abuse is an alarming feature on both the American and world landscapes. In the United States, reported cases of child sexual abuse increased by 322% between 1980 and 1990,’ with 1.3 million reported sexual assaults on children in 1995 alone. The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect defines child sexual abuse as any childhood sexual experience that interferes with or has the potential for interfering with a child’s healthy development (as cited in Dove et al., 2001) . As stated in Dove (2001) article it explains the complications of defining sexual abuse. The varifiying definitions of sexual abuse results differentiate in statutory regulations across government bodies and among cultural values and norms. Child sexual abuse perpetrators include family members, friends, neighbors, teachers, coaches, clergy, and older children. In 2005, Lowe Jr. states, “The distinction between what is considered aberrant behavior, criminal behavior, and reportable criminal behavior is significant, because pedophilia, unlike psychotic behavior (which may be interpreted as socially deviant…..).”
Neglect. Even though there is a lack of research for neglect, neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment for all ethnic groups. Elliot (2006) reviews another article and reports perceptions among Latino, African-American and non- Latino white parents were similar in their perceptions of the behaviors that constituted neglect. Overall, neglect accounted for 49.9% of all child maltreatment reports, with ranges across ethnicities of 47.6–67.8% (excluding Pacific Islanders; DHHS, 2005). Both groups accentuated exploitation, inadequate supervision, exposing children to unwholesome circumstances as harmful and neglectful behavior. The non-Latino White parents tended to focus on the inadequate provision of food and education as constituting neglect.
Types of Neglect. The different types of neglect would be physical neglect, neglecting the child’s education and cultural deprivation, emotionally neglecting the child, and temporary or definite abandonment of the child.
Effects of physical abuse. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reported that in 1998 approximately 1,100 children died as a result of physical abuse. Of these, 38% were under the age of one; 78% were under the age of five; and virtually all were’ under the age of twelve (Srednicki & Twaite). Children that survive from being sexually abused suffer from psychological disorders. As a result, physically abused children are tense, anxious and hyperactive. Physically abused children also tend to be fear-ful. Physically abused children also tend to be impulsive and are frequently diagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivty disorder (ADHD). In 2004, Srednicki’s article stated, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the personal attributes of the parents’ that predict the physical abuse of their children include: becoming a parent at a very early age, being a single parent, having several young children who are close together in age, being a substance abuser, having a history of poor impulse control or violence and having been physically abused themselves as children.
Effects of sexual abuse. Sexually abused children exhibit higher rates of delinquency, conduct problems, and school and academic problems than those who were not abused. Mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood for children who have been sexually abused include higher rates of depression, anxiety, substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, self-mutilation, post-traumatic stress disorders, and suicide (Dove & Miller). In Dove 2004 article emphasizes, that the psychological damage linked with childhood sexual abuse is extensive and well
documented. Amongst the psychological and social symptoms that have been linked to sexual abuse are fearfulness and anxiety-related symptoms, depression and suicidal behavior, hysterical and dissociative symptoms, insecure attachment and mistrust, impaired peer relationships, poor academic adjustment, and low self-esteem.
Effects on Neglect. Children that are physically neglected leads to undevelopment of children. Then, if the child does not have adequate food, clothing, shelter, supervision and
protection, affection, raising brothers in a pyramidal form, etc. ; both physical and mental birth and maturity malformations will appear proceed, and in adulthood he will proceed the same , as he was brought up. Cultural, emotional or abandonment depression, are just some of the forms of neglect. Some may be intentional (alcoholic parents, mentally ill, jealousy, physical maltreatment) or others unintended (work overtime, lack of affectivity due to parental absence) (as cited in Boglut & Tudoran).
Limitations. The discrepancies identified may result from a number of limitations found in the studies.