4000ENG Research Methods And Statistics 3 Essay



To write an abstract which describes the important parts of your research plan and to review at least 5 important and journal articles relevant to your research plan. This must be based around extending the research outlined in the journal paper you have selected at the start of the course.

In undertaking this exercise, you must demonstrate the following:

  • A clear title and key words
  • An abstract using the hour glass method of approach as outlined in lectures
  • Technical knowledge of the research topic and its relevance to society. A brief research plan including a research hypothesis, an outline of the research methods to be used, and the statistical methods needed to prove your hypothesis
  • A literature review of at least 5 references which have been carefully analysed.
  • A correctly formatted list of references.

You must demonstrate an understanding of the lecture material and the workshop feedback given during the course. Obvious inconsistencies with the lecture material will degrade the final score significantly.

The Assessment Plan

  • Project title and four key words relevant to the planned experimental research.
  • A brief research plan including a research hypothesis, an outline of the research methods to be used, and the statistical methods needed to prove your hypothesis


Title: Study For The Relevance Of Coconut Shell Aggregate Concrete Non-Pressure Pipe.


Concrete is one of the most adaptable building raw materials. With over 5 billion loads of concrete made yearly, it is well-thought-out to be the utmost significant construction material. As a result, the concrete production use a sizable quantity of natural constituents. Making of concrete is growing owing to extraordinary development of infrastructure and building works all over the world. Concrete is the lone material that can be effortlessly attuned for the substitution of common components likened to other building constituents [2-7]. As a result, concrete investigators are ongoing their exploration to substitute concrete ingredients from innumerable wastes from domestic, agricultural and industries. A case in point is the replacement of convention concrete constituents with coconut shell concrete to manufacture of non-pressure concrete pipes.

Coconut shell Aggregate

A number of the wastes recycled as constituents of concrete such as ceramic wastes, marble quarry litters, glass litters, and reused aggregates. Coconut shell is among the unwanted material gotten from scraped coconuts. Using the coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete is an innovative concept in the current concrete expertise to make concrete. The density of coconut shell aggregate is fairly less equaled to the normal concrete aggregate [1]. Hence, the density will be lesser for coconut shell aggregate concrete. Specific gravity is similarly the indirect measurement of density all the concrete ingredients.

Precast concrete pipe.

Concrete pipes are categorized primarily as non-pressure pipe and pressure pipe. Non-pressure pipes are sub categorized more into two categories known as unreinforced concrete non-pressure and reinforced concrete non-pressure pipes [7]. All, unreinforced and reinforced concrete pipes withstand a set pressure of 0.08 N/mm2 (8 m).

Statement of Research Problem

The usage of trash materials as main constituent in concrete may offer probable answer to the difficulties of controlling farm waste such as management of coco nut shells. Coconut shell which is denoted as endocarp can be advantageous as aggregate for concrete. The concrete made with coconut covering as a key aggregate ought to partake the required engineering enactment features (workability, uniformity, and compressive m?tier) to attain the typical stipulations. Hence the necessity for the investigation of the appropriateness of coconut shell aggregate in concrete.

The emphasis of this investigation is to tackle the following questions:

  1. Can coconut shell be used in non-pressure concrete pipes production?
  2. If yes, is it eco-friendly?
  • What desirable or undesirable effect does it hold on concrete making?

Scope of Work

The scope of this work is limited to:

  1. To determine the relevance of coconut shell in non-pressure concrete pipes.
  2. The physical properties of coconut shell.
  • Test of the compressive m?tier of coconut shell concrete.

Materials and Procedure

Conventional cement, sand, Coconut Shell, and clean water are the components to be utilized in making Coconut Shell Aggregate Concrete. Crushed granite gravels of 12.50mm sizes will be utilized to prepare Conventional Concrete for contrast.

Choice and design of pipe

Herein research, reinforced concrete pipes of 145mm core diameter, tub wall width of 20mm of Non-pressure pipes and length 1.5m are to be used.5 numbers of 3 and 6mm diameter mild steel to be used as least circumferential and longitudinal reinforcement respectively.

Pipe production.

Coconut Shell Concrete and Conventional Concrete, a target of least of 35 N/mm2 is to be achieved at 28-days. A molding machine for preparation of pipes to be used. The mixing of concrete ingredients and the process for manufacture of pipe as per the pipe producer to be embraced [2].


The samples of pipes will be exposed to subsequent tests as per Australian standards such as hydrostatic, absorption and three-edge bearing tests.

Literature Review.

The flexural performance of RCC beam with coconut shell for two altered mix ratios and testified that No plane crack were perceived by Abinesh [1]. This designates that there is upright connection among the ingredients and the experiment outcomes were closely to conventional granite aggregate concrete beam. He also demarcated the characteristics are substitutable for light weight aggregate concrete making with least strength of 35 N/mm2.

Recent studies [4], [5] have revealed the Compressive strength of concrete by use of coconut shell as coarse aggregate for 100% substitutes and resolved that coconut concrete strength is lesser than conventional aggregate concrete due to reduced density and light load of coconut shell particles.

Coconut shell aggregate concrete has fulfilled the required strength of concrete after 28 days of curing with the utmost size of coconut shell as 10 mm in the physical characteristics has observed by Olanipekun E.A. et al, [6]. The quantity of cement castoff is same when coconut shells are utilized as aggregates in the making of concrete likened to normal aggregate concrete to yield almost equal forte.

The coconut shell aggregate with conventional granite aggregate by mechanical and durability characteristics analysis as studied by Vishwas [7]. He established that the coconut shell aggregate has great opposition in scrape, wear and tear, bearing and crushing analysis.


The experiment outcomes in mentioned journals offer noteworthy accepting on elementary Material characteristics, Mechanical characteristics, and Stability characteristics, of coconut shell aggregate concrete while equaling standard granite aggregate concrete.


[1] Abinesh, R., Gunasekaran, K., Annadurai, R., Study on flexural behaviour of coconut shell concrete using Quarry dust, International Journals for Innovative Research in Science & Technology, Vol. 1 (11), pp. 426 – 432, June 2015.

[2] Amarnath, Yerramalaa, Ramachandrudu, C., Properties of concrete with coconut shells as aggregate replacement, International Journal of Engineering Inventions, Vol. 1 (6), pp. 21-31, Dec 2012.

[3] Daniel, Y., Performance of coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete: a review, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2 (4), pp. 1096-1100, May 2013.

[4] Parag, S., Kambli, Sandhya, R., Application of coconut shell as coarse aggregate in concrete: a technical review, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 4 (3), pp. 498-501. 22, January 2014.

[5] Parag, S., Kambli, Sandhya, R., Compressive strength of concrete by using coconut shell, International Organization of Scientific Research Journal of Engineering, Vol. 4 (4), pp. 2278- 8719, August 2014.

[6] Olanipekun E.A. et al, –A comparative study of concrete properties using coconut shell and conventional aggregates as coarse aggregates, International Journal of Building and Environment 41, pp. 297–301.September 2006

[7] Vishwas, P., Kukarni, Sanjay Kumar, B., Comparative study on coconut shell aggregate with conventional concrete, International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, Vol. 2 (12), pp. 67-70, October 2013.

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